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/usr/bin

  • 2to3-2.7: Python2 to Python3 converter
  • add-apt-repository:Adds a repository into the /etc/apt/sources.list or /etc/apt/sources
  • aiksaurus: English-language thesaurus
  • alpine: an Alternatively Licensed Program for Internet News and Email
  • apropos: search the manual page names and descriptions
  • apt: command-line interface
  • apt-cache: query the APT cache
  • apt-cdrom: APT CD-ROM management utility
  • apt-get: APT package handling utility:- command-line interface
  • aptitude: high-level interface to the package manager
  • ar: create, modify, and extract from archives
  • arch: print machine hardware name (same as uname -m)
  • as: the portable GNU assembler.
  • aspell: interactive spell checker
  • aspell-import: import old personal dictionaries into GNU Aspell
  • astcosmiccal: estimate cosmological values
  • awk: pattern scanning and processing language
  • baobab: A graphical tool to analyze disk usage
  • basename: strip directory and suffix from filenames
  • bc: An arbitrary precision calculator language
  • cal: displays a calendar and the date of Easter
  • catfish: File searching tool which is configurable via the command line
  • catman: create or update the pre-formatted manual pages
  • cc: GNU project C and C++ compiler
  • charmap: Unicode character picker and font browser
  • clear: clear the terminal screen
  • column: columnate lists
  • convert: convert between image formats as well as resize an image, blur, crop...
  • cpp: The C Preprocessor
  • crontab: tables for driving cron
  • curl: transfer a URL
  • cut: remove sections from each line of files
  • dc: an arbitrary precision calculator
  • dia: a diagram drawing program
  • diff: compare files line by line
  • dircolors: color setup for ls
  • dirname: strip last component from file name
  • display: displays an image or image sequence on any X server.
  • dpkg: package manager for Debian
  • du: estimate file space usage
  • eject: eject removable media
  • elinks: lynx-like alternative character mode WWW browser
  • enchant: a spellchecker
  • ex: Vi IMproved, a programmer's text editor
  • expr: evaluate expressions
  • factor: factor numbers
  • ffmpeg: ffmpeg video converter
  • ffplay: FFplay media player
  • file: determine file type
  • find: search for files in a directory hierarchy
  • firefox: a free and open source web browser from Mozilla
  • free: Display amount of free and used memory in the system
  • ftp: Internet file transfer program
  • gcc: GNU project C and C++ compiler
  • gftp: file transfer client for *NIX based machines.
  • gimp: an image manipulation and paint program.
  • gnome-calculator: a desktop calculator
  • gnome-disks: the GNOME Disks application
  • gnome-screenshot: capture the screen, a window, or an user-defined area and save the snap.
  • hexdump: ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
  • info: readable online documentation
  • join: join lines of two files on a common field
  • ld: The GNU linker
  • less: opposite of more
  • libreoffice: LibreOffice office suite
  • lsmem: list the ranges of available memory with their online status
  • lsof: list open files
  • madplay: decode and play MPEG audio stream(s)
  • make: GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs
  • man: macros to format man pages
  • mc: Visual shell for Unix-like systems.
  • mcedit: Internal file editor of GNU Midnight Commander.
  • mkdiskimage: Create a blank MS-DOS formatted hard disk image
  • mogrify: resize an image, blur, crop, despeckle, dither, draw on, flip, join, re...
  • mogrify-im6: resize an image, blur, crop, despeckle, dither, draw on, flip, join, re...
  • mplayer: movie player
  • nl: number lines of files
  • ogg123: plays Ogg Vorbis files
  • oggdec: simple decoder, Ogg Vorbis file to PCM audio file (Wave or RAW).
  • oggenc: encode audio into the Ogg Vorbis format
  • pan: a GTK+ based news reader
  • par: filter for reformatting paragraphs
  • passwd: change user password
  • paste: merge lines of files
  • pdf2ps: Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator
  • pdftohtml: program to convert PDF files into HTML, XML and PNG images
  • pdftotext: Portable Document Format (PDF) to text converter (version 3.03)
  • perl: The Perl 5 language interpreter
  • prename: renames multiple files
  • ps2pdf: Convert PostScript to PDF using ghostscript
  • psc: prepare sc files
  • pstree: display a tree of processes
  • pulseaudio: The PulseAudio Sound System
  • python: an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language
  • rename: renames multiple files
  • sc: spreadsheet calculator
  • seq: print a sequence of numbers
  • sftp: secure file transfer program
  • shuf: generate random permutations
  • sort: sort lines of text files
  • sox: Sound eXchange, the Swiss Army knife of audio manipulation
  • startx: initialize an X session
  • streamripper: rip shoutcast radio streams to mp3 files
  • strings: print the strings of printable characters in files.
  • tail: output the last part of files
  • tee: duplicating pipe content
  • top: display Linux processes
  • touch: change file timestamps
  • uniq: report or omit repeated lines
  • unrar: extract files from rar archives
  • vi: Vi IMproved, a programmer's text editor
  • vim: Vi IMproved, a programmer's text editor
  • virtualbox: x86 virtualization solution
  • vlc: the VLC media player
  • w3m: a text based web browser and pager
  • wc: print newline, word, and byte counts for each file
  • wcalc: a natural-expression command-line calculator
  • weather: command-line tool to obtain weather conditions and forecasts
  • weather-util: command-line tool to obtain weather conditions and forecasts
  • wget: The non-interactive network downloader.
  • whatis: display one-line manual page descriptions
  • whereis: locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command
  • which: locate a command
  • who: show who is logged on
  • whoami: print effective userid
  • wodim: write data to optical disk media
  • www-browser: lynx-like alternative character mode WWW browser
  • xaos: Fast interactive real-time fractal zoomer/morpher
  • xargs: build and execute command lines from standard input
  • xcalc: scientific calculator for X
  • xclip: command line interface to X selections (clipboard)
  • xclipboard: X clipboard client
  • xclip-copyfile: copy and move files via the X clipboard
  • xclip-cutfile: copy and move files via the X clipboard
  • xclip-pastefile: copy and move files via the X clipboard
  • yacc: GNU Project parser generator
  • yelp: browse system documentation
  • yes: output a string repeatedly until killed
  • zip: package and compress (archive) files

/bin

  • archdetect: detect hardware architecture
  • bash: GNU Bourne-Again SHell
  • brltty: refreshable braille display driver for Linux/Unix
  • btrfs: a toolbox to manage btrfs filesystems
  • btrfs: topics about the BTRFS filesystem (mount options, supported file attrib...
  • btrfsck: check or repair a btrfs filesystem
  • btrfs-debug-tree: query various internal information
  • btrfs-find-root: filter to find btrfs root
  • btrfs-image: create/restore an image of the filesystem
  • btrfs-map-logical: map btrfs logical extent to physical extent
  • btrfs-select-super: overwrite primary superblock with a backup copy
  • btrfstune: tune various filesystem parameters
  • btrfs-zero-log: Recover a damaged btrfs filesystem
  • bunzip2: a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.6
  • busybox: The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux
  • bzcat: decompresses files to stdout
  • bzcmp: compare bzip2 compressed files
  • bzdiff: compare bzip2 compressed files
  • bzegrep: search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression
  • bzexe: compress executable files in place
  • bzfgrep: search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression
  • bzgrep: search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression
  • bzip2: a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.6
  • bzip2recover: recovers data from damaged bzip2 files
  • bzless: file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text
  • bzmore: file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text
  • cat: concatenate files and print on the standard output
  • chacl: change the access control list of a file or directory
  • chgrp: change group ownership
  • chmod: change file mode bits
  • chmod: change permissions of a file
  • chown: change file owner and group
  • chown: change ownership of a file
  • chvt: change foreground virtual terminal
  • cp: copy files and directories
  • cpio: copy files to and from archives
  • dash: command interpreter (shell)
  • date: print or set the system date and time
  • dd: convert and copy a file
  • df: report file system disk space usage
  • dir: list directory contents
  • dmesg: print or control the kernel ring buffer
  • dnsdomainname: show the system's DNS domain name
  • domainname: show or set the system's NIS/YP domain name
  • dumpkeys: dump keyboard translation tables
  • echo: display a line of text
  • red: line-oriented text editor
  • ed: line-oriented text editor
  • efibootdump: dump a boot entries from a variable or a file
  • efibootmgr: manipulate the EFI Boot Manager
  • egrep: print lines matching a pattern
  • false: do nothing, unsuccessfully
  • fgconsole: print the number of the active VT.
  • fgrep: print lines matching a pattern
  • findmnt: find a filesystem
  • fsck.btrfs: do nothing, successfully
  • fuser: identify processes using files or sockets
  • fusermount: unmount FUSE filesystems
  • getfacl: get file access control lists
  • grep: print lines matching a pattern
  • gunzip: compress or expand files
  • gzexe: compress executable files in place
  • gzip: compress or expand files
  • hciconfig: configure Bluetooth devices
  • hostname: Local hostname configuration file
  • hostname: hostname resolution description
  • hostname: show or set the system's host name
  • ip: show / manipulate routing, network devices, interfaces and tunnels
  • ip: Linux IPv4 protocol implementation
  • journalctl: Query the systemd journal
  • kbd_mode: report or set the keyboard mode
  • keyctl: Key management facility control
  • keyctl: manipulate the kernel's key management facility
  • kill: send a signal to a process
  • kill: send signal to a process
  • kmod: Program to manage Linux Kernel modules
  • less: opposite of more
  • lessecho: expand metacharacters
  • lessfile: "input preprocessor" for less.
  • lesskey: specify key bindings for less
  • lesspipe: "input preprocessor" for less.
  • ln: make links between files
  • loadkeys: load keyboard translation tables
  • login: begin session on the system
  • login: write utmp and wtmp entries
  • loginctl: Control the systemd login manager
  • lowntfs-3g: Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver
  • ls: list directory contents
  • lsblk: list block devices
  • lsmod: Show the status of modules in the Linux Kernel
  • mkdir: make directories
  • mkdir: create a directory
  • mkfs.btrfs: create a btrfs filesystem
  • mknod: make block or character special files
  • mknod: create a special or ordinary file
  • mktemp: create a temporary file or directory
  • mktemp: make a unique temporary filename
  • more: file perusal filter for crt viewing
  • mount: mount a filesystem
  • mount: mount filesystem
  • mountpoint: see if a directory or file is a mountpoint
  • mt: control magnetic tape drive operation
  • mt-gnu: control magnetic tape drive operation
  • mv: move (rename) files
  • nano: Nano's ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone
  • nc: arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens
  • nc.openbsd: arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens
  • netcat: arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens
  • netstat: Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masque...
  • networkctl: Query the status of network links
  • nisdomainname: show or set the system's NIS/YP domain name
  • ntfs-3g: Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver
  • ntfs-3g.probe: Probe an NTFS volume mountability
  • ntfscat: print NTFS files and streams on the standard output
  • ntfscluster: identify files in a specified region of an NTFS volume.
  • ntfscmp: compare two NTFS filesystems and tell the differences
  • ntfsfallocate: preallocate space to a file on an NTFS volume
  • ntfsfix: fix common errors and force Windows to check NTFS
  • ntfsinfo: dump a file's attributes
  • ntfsls: list directory contents on an NTFS filesystem
  • ntfsrecover: Recover updates committed by Windows on an NTFS volume
  • ntfssecaudit: NTFS Security Data Auditing
  • ntfstruncate: truncate a file on an NTFS volume
  • ntfsusermap: NTFS Building a User Mapping File
  • ntfswipe: overwrite unused space on an NTFS volume
  • open: start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT).
  • open: open and possibly create a file
  • openvt: start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT).
  • pidof: find the process ID of a running program.
  • ping: send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
  • ping4: send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
  • ping6: send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
  • plymouth: A graphical boot system and logger
  • plymouth: Send commands to plymouthd
  • ps: report a snapshot of the current processes.
  • pwd: print name of current/working directory
  • rbash: restricted bash, see bash
  • readlink: print resolved symbolic links or canonical file names
  • readlink: read value of a symbolic link
  • tc-red: Random Early Detection
  • rm: remove files or directories
  • rmdir: remove empty directories
  • rmdir: delete a directory
  • rnano: a restricted nano
  • run-parts: run scripts or programs in a directory
  • sed: stream editor for filtering and transforming text
  • setfacl: set file access control lists
  • setfont: load EGA/VGA console screen font
  • setupcon: sets up the font and the keyboard on the console
  • sh: command interpreter (shell)
  • sh.distrib: command interpreter (shell)
  • sleep: delay for a specified amount of time
  • sleep: sleep for a specified number of seconds
  • ss: another utility to investigate sockets
  • stty: change and print terminal line settings
  • stty: unimplemented system calls
  • su: change user ID or become superuser
  • sync: Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage
  • sync: commit filesystem caches to disk
  • systemctl: Control the systemd system and service manager
  • systemd: systemd system and service manager
  • systemd-ask-password: Query the user for a system password
  • systemd-escape: Escape strings for usage in systemd unit names
  • systemd-hwdb: hardware database management tool
  • systemd-inhibit: Execute a program with an inhibition lock taken
  • systemd-machine-id-setup: Initialize the machine ID in /etc/machine-id
  • systemd-notify: Notify service manager about start-up completion and other daemon statu...
  • systemd-sysusers: Allocate system users and groups
  • systemd-tmpfiles: Creates, deletes and cleans up volatile and temporary files and directo...
  • systemd-tty-ask-password-agent: List or process pending systemd password requests
  • tar: an archiving utility
  • tempfile: create a temporary file in a safe manner
  • touch: change file timestamps
  • true: do nothing, successfully
  • udevadm: udev management tool
  • ulockmgr_server: Lock Manager Server for FUSE filesystems
  • umount: unmount file systems
  • umount: unmount filesystem
  • uname: print system information
  • uname: get name and information about current kernel
  • uncompress: compress or expand files
  • unicode_start: put keyboard and console in unicode mode
  • vdir: list directory contents
  • wdctl: show hardware watchdog status
  • which: locate a command
  • whiptail: display dialog boxes from shell scripts
  • ypdomainname: show or set the system's NIS/YP domain name
  • zcat: compress or expand files
  • zcmp: compare compressed files
  • zdiff: compare compressed files
  • zegrep: search possibly compressed files for a regular expression
  • zfgrep: search possibly compressed files for a regular expression
  • zforce: force a '.gz' extension on all gzip files
  • zgrep: search possibly compressed files for a regular expression
  • zless: file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text
  • zmore: file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text
  • znew: recompress .Z files to .gz files
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