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E Layer

The E Layer (Kennelly-Heaviside Layer) is a region of ionised gas in the ionos

here, which reflects practically all incident medium frequency radiation,

absorbing very little.


Earnest

An earnest is a small sum of money or token given to bind a bargain between two

parties.


Earth

The earth is the third planet from the sun.


Earth Metal

The Earth Metals are the metals which in combination with oxygen form alkaline

earths. They are calcium, strontium and barium and are never found in an

uncombined condition, but oxidise rapidly into lime, strontia and baryta, the

alkaline earths.


Easel

An easel is a stand or support for an artist's canvas.


Easement

Easement is a privilege without profit, i.e. a right attached to one piece of

land which allows the owner of the land to use the land of another in a

particular manner.


East India Company

The East India Company was an incorporated company trading with India and the

East Indies. East India Companies were founded in the 17th and 18th centuries

by many European countries, the most important being the English East India

Company with a close rival in the Dutch East India Company. The English company

obtained from Queen Elizabeth I a charter in 1600 conferring the monopoly of

trade with the East Indies.


Eastenders

Eastenders is a successful BBC soap-opera about the everday lives of a

community in the East End of London in the 1980s and 1990s.


Easy hire

see "Tally System"


Eaves

Eaves are the edges of a roof projecting beyond the walls.


Ebonite

Ebonite is a hard product obtained by fully vulcanising rubber with more than

20 percent of its weight of sulphur. Ebonite is very resistant to corrosion and

as an excellent insulator was employed in the electrical industry.


Ebony

Ebony is the heart-wood of various species of Diospyros, trees of the order

Ebenacea. It is a heavy, deep black wood used in piano keys and inlaying.


Ecarte

Ecarte is a card game for two players, first played in Paris in the 19th

century. A deck of 32 cards is used, all the cards below 7 being removed. The

ace ranks between the 10 and the jack. Spectators are allowed to bet on the

game.


Echinus

An echinus is the rounded moulding in the capital of a Doric column.


Echo Sounding

Echo Sounding is measurement of the depth of the ocean by directing a sonic or

ultrasonic pressure wave vertically downward and determining the time taken

before the echo is received.


Eclipse

An eclipse is the passage of a celestial body through the shadow of another.


Ecology

Ecology is the study of the relationship between plants and the places in which

they grow. The term is becoming used to describe the opposition to man-made

pollution and destruction of nature, hence an ecologist today is thought of

more as an environmental campaigner than a botanist.


Ectoderm

see "Germ layer"


EDAAS

EDAAS is an expert system that uses its knowledge of both the Toxic Substances

Control Act (USA) and criteria for classifying information as confidential to

help information specialists decide which information about the manufacturing

and distribution of toxic chemicals must be released to the public and which

information may be withheld for proprietary purposes. EDAAS was developed for

the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA using FORTRAN.


Eddy Current

Eddy currents (Foucault currents) are electric currents induced in a conductor

by a varying magnetic field, for instance, in the core of an inductor or

transformer.


Effervescence

Effervescence is the rapid escape of gas from a liquid, usually due to chemical

action.


Efflorescence

In chemistry, efflorescence is the spontaneous loss of water by a substance

when exposed to air.


Effort

Effort is strenuous exertion.


Egg

An egg is a body specially developed in the females of animals which when

impregnated by a male sperm develops into the young of the animal.


Egyptian Ratscrew

Egyptian Ratscrew is a card game, also known as Egyptian War, or Bloodystump is

currently popular in the USA. It is related to the English children's game

known as "Beggar My Neighbour" or "Beat Your Neighbour Out Of Doors".


Eisteddfod

Eisteddfod is a Bardic Congress held periodically in Wales for the

encouragement and development of Welsh music and literature. Its origins date

back to pre-Christian times, though the first recorded Eisteddfod was held in

the 6th century.


Ejectment

Ejectment was a common law action, abolished in 1852, to recover possession of

land and damages for the wrongful withholding of it.


Electric current

Electric current is the movement of electric charge. In a conductor the current

consists of a drift of electrons towards the positive pole of the applied

electric field. In an electrolyte or in a gas it consists of the migration of

positive ions towards the negative electrode and of negative ions and/or

electrons towards the positive electrode.


Electrode

An electrode is a conductor by which an electric current enters or leaves an

electrolyte or an electron tube. The positive electrode is called the anode and

the negative electrode is called the cathode.


Electrolysis

In chemistry, electrolysis is the decomposition of a chemical compound by an

electrical current.


Electrolyte

In chemistry, electrolyte is a substance which will conduct an electrical

current when in solution or melted


Electron

In chemistry, an electron is an atomic particle carrying a unit charge of

negative electricity, having a mass of 1/1837 of that of a proton.


Electrophoresis

In chemistry, electrophoresis is the migration of colloidal particles dispersed

in a fluid, under the influence of an electric field.


Electrostatic

Electrostatic refers to the phenomena produced solely by electric charges or

fields, and not combined with magnetic effects.


Electrostriction

Electrostriction is small changes in the dimensions of a dielectric when placed

in an electric field.


Electrovalence

In chemistry, electrovalence is the valence as determined by the electrons lost

or gained by the elements reacting to form a compound.


Electrum

Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver. The gold content

varies but is usually around 65 - 80 percent. Other metals, such as copper,

bismuth or palladium are also sometimes present. In Ancient Greece the term

electrum was given to an alloy of gold and silver containing 80 percent gold.


Elegit

Elegit is a legal writ ordering the seizure of a debtor's land in order to

satisfy a judgment debt.


Elegy

Elegy is a form of poetry of a mournful and reflective character, particularly

a mourning song for a departed friend.


Element

An element is a substance that cannot be split chemically into simpler

substances.


Elements

see "element"


Eleusinian Mysteries

The Eleusinian Mysteries were Greek initiation ceremonies connected with the

worship of Demeter, believed to have been first performed at Eleusis.


Eleusis

Eleusis technically belongs to the eights group, in that players try to get rid

of their cards by playing them to a discard pile. However, the unique feature

of this game is that the rule governing which cards can legally be played is

initially unknown to the players. The dealer (sometimes known as God) secretly

invents and writes down the rule governing play. The other players try to guess

the rule by observing which plays are legal. The original version of Eleusis

was invented by Robert Abbott in 1956, and was published in Martin Gardner's

column in the Scientific American in June 1959. It subsequently appeared in

Gardner's 2nd Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions

and in Robert Abbott's book Abbott's New Card Games (Stein & Day 1963). In the

1970's Robbert Abbott made some major improvements to Eleusis, including the

option for a player to become a prophet and try to predict whether each play

would be called legal or illegal. This current version The New Eleusis was

published in the Scientific American in October 1977.


Elgin marbles

The Elgin marbles are a collection of ancient Greek sculptures assembled by the

7th earl of Elgin and brought to England in 1812


Ell

The ell was an English unit of measurement for cloth fixed at 45 inches by

Henry I in 1101. The French ell (or aune) was 46.79 inches in length. The Swiss

aune is 47.25 inches.


EMACS

EMACS is a programmable computer text editor with an entire LISP system inside

it. It was originally written by Richard Stallman in TECO under ITS at the MIT

AI lab; AI Memo 554 described it as "an advanced, self-documenting,

customizable, extensible real-time display editor". It has since been

reimplemented any number of times, by various hackers, and versions exist which

run under most major operating systems. Perhaps the most widely used version,

also written by Stallman and now called "GNU EMACS" or GNUMACS, runs

principally under UNIX. It includes facilities to run compilation subprocesses

and send and receive mail. Other variants include GOSMACS, CCA EMACS, UniPress

EMACS, Montgomery EMACS, jove, epsilon, and MicroEMACS.


Emanation

Emanation is a theological doctrine which regards individuals as outpourings of

the divine essence. It denies the personality of both God and man.


Emancipation Act

The Emancipation Act abolished slavery throughout the British colonies on

August 28th 1833. 20 million pounds was paid as compensation to slave-owners.


Embalming

Embalming is the preparation of dead bodies so that they will not decay. The

ancient Egyptians were especially expert and manny mummies are still preserved.


Embassy

An embassy is an ambassador's residence.


Ember Days

Ember Days are the Wednsday, Friday and Saturday following September 14th,

December 13th, the first Sunday of Lent and Whitsunday, set apart in the Roman

Catholic Church and the Church of England for prayer, especially for those

about to be ordained.


Embezzlement

In law, embezzlement is the theft by a clerk or servant of money or goods

received by him on behalf of his employer. It differs from larceny in that the

original receiving of the property was lawful.


Emblements

Emblements is the right of an agricultural tenant, whose lease lapses before

harvest, to enter the land and gather crops.


Embolic gangrene

see "Gangrene"


Embossing

Embossing is the art of producing a design on paper, cardboard, metal, leather

&c., by forcing or stamping out appropriate portions of the under-side to give

a raised effect.


Embracery

In law, embracery is the misdemeanour of attempting to influence a juryman to

favour one side< otherwise than by evidence and argument given in open court. A

juryman allowing himself to be corrupted is equally guilty of embracery.


Embrasure

Embrasures are the spaces or openings between two merlons (solid portions) of a

battlement.


Embroidery

Embroidery is the art of ornamenting woven fabric into designs in needle-work.

Embroidery differs from tapestry in that the design is stitched on the top of a

woven material, whereas in tapestry the design is woven into it.


Emigration

Emigration is the departure from one's native country in order to take up

permanent residence in another.


Eminent Domain

Eminent Domain is the right of the State to use private property for public

purposes, particularly in war-time.


Empire

An Empire is a large state or federation of states extending over a wide

geographical area, and usually developed by the absorption of other peoples and

countries. Empires are nearly always built up by the virile conquering and

colonising expansion of a single State, but subsequently the individual

provinces gradually attain independence.


Empire Day

Empire Day (originally Victoria Day) was an annual festival inaugurated in 1902

to celebrate on May 24th the achievement of the British Empire and Queen

Victoria's Birthday.


Empire Pool

The Empire Pool at Wembley, London, was opened in 1934 for the Empire Games

swimming and diving events. The pool was closed after the 1948 Olympic Games

and converted into a sports arena for various events including ice pantomimes.


Empiricism

Empiricism is the theory that personal experience is the source of all

knowledge and that the mind was originally an absolute blank. The theory

originated with Heraclitus and was characteristic of Greek speculative thought.


Employment Exchange

The British government established an office called the Employment Exchange in

1909 for the purpose of introducing unemployed men to vacancies notified by

employers. In 1912 the office took on the additional role of administering

unemployment insurance. Today, the office is known as the Department of

Employment and the Employment Exchanges are called Job Centres.


Empyema

Empyema is a pathological term describing a collection of pus in a cavity,

especially applied to pus in the pleural cavity of the lung.


Emulsion

An emulsion is an extremely fine dispersion of a liquid throughout another

liquid with which it is immiscible. Industrial emulsions include margarine, and

paint. Within the natural world, the most common emulsion is blood.


Encaje

Encaje, also known as Mus Francus (French Mus), is a version of the Basque game

Mus suitable for 3 or 5 players.


Encyclical

An encyclical is a circular letter on ecclesiastic affairs written in Latin and

addressed by the Pope to all the clergy and faithful of the Roman Catholic

Church. The first was issued by Benedict XIV in 1740, but encyclicals only

became common in the 19th century.


Encyclopaedia

The word Encyclopaedia (Encyclopedia) was first defined in Sir Thomas Elyot's

Latin Dictionary (1538) as "that lernynge whiche comprehendeth all lyberall

science and studies." It was first used as the title of a book by Johann

Heinrich Alsted in 1608, by which time it had acquired its modern meaning of a

book covering every branch of human knowledge. The term is also, however,

applied to a work confined to some particular branch of knowledge. The

distinction between an encyclopaedia and a dictionary is that the former

explains subjects and the latter explains words.


Encyclopaedia Britannica

The Encyclopaedia Britannica was first published as three volumes in 1771, and

the second enlarged edition was published in 1778 and has been republished ever

since to become one of the most famous encyclopaedias of all time.


Endoderm

see "Germ layer"


Endosperm

Endosperm is the nutritive tissue in plant seeds which feeds the growing embryo.


Endothermic reaction

In chemistry, an endothermic reaction is a chemical change in which heat is

absorbed.


Endowment Insurance

Endowment Insurance is a form of insurance whereby, in return for regular

contributions, a fixed sum is payable at death or at a certain age when the

insured person ceases to pay premiums.


Energy

In physics, the term energy refers to an object's capacity to do work. This

capacity is related to the strength of the flow of electrons in the object, or,

in the case of potential energy, the amount of energy stored in the object.

Thus, a powerful object such as the sun expels an enormous flow of electrons as

solar energy, and a single atom of hydrogen contains the pathetic energy of a

single electron orbiting its nucleus.


English

English is a term used to denote someone or something from England.


Engraving

Engraving is the art of cutting a design on a hard substance, such as wood or

metal.


Enigmarelle

Enigmarelle was the first robot. It was an automaton constructed of 365

different parts, and actuated by electricity. The figure rode a bicycle, wrote

its name on a blackboard and performed other tasks similar to a human being.

Enigmarelle was exhibited at the London Hippodrome in June 1905.


Enjambement

Enjambement is the arranging of sentences and clauses in verse so that their

ends do not coincide with the ends of the lines. It was introduced in order to

give fluency and ease to verses.


Enneastyle

An Enneastyle is a Greek temple or other building having nine columns at the

front.


Ensign

An ensign is a flag or banner used in the Army and Navy. The British naval

ensign is red, white or blue, with a small Union Jack in the upper corner. The

red ensign is flown by the Merchant fleet, the blue by the Royal Navy Reserve

and the white, which includes a red St George's cross by the Royal Navy.


Entail

Entail is a system of land tenure which was introduced by the statute De Donis

in 1285, and by which the holder has only a life interest in the land, which

passes on his death to his heirs.


Entente Cordiale

The Entente Cordiale was the semi-formal alliance between England and France

before the Great War. The alliance was first sought by France in 1903 seeking

that in the event of a conflict with Germany, England would be at least

neutral. In 1904 an agreement was signed whereby France had a free hand in

Morocco and England a free hand in Egypt.


Entomology

Entomology is the branch of zoology dealing with insects. It was started as a

science in 1705 by the publication of Ray's Methodus Insectorum.


Entrepot Trade

Entrepot Trade is the trade in one centre in the goods of other countries.


Envelope

Envelopes for letters were first mentioned by Jonathan Swift in 1726, and came

into general use with the introduction of the penny post in 1840.


Enzyme

An enzyme is a biological catalyst that is not itself destroyed in the

conversion process. Enzymes convert organic compounds into simpler substances

and are formed by micro-organisms and cells.


Eocene

The Eocene was the fourteenth geological period, 50,000,000 years ago.


Eocene System

The Eocene System is the oldest of the four geological systems into which the

Tertiary era is divided.


Eosin

Eosin is the potassium or sodium salt of tetrabromo-flourescein. It is a red

substance which possesses brilliant flourescence in alkaline solution. It is

used in acid solution as a red dye for wool and silk and is also used in red

ink.


Epaulette

An epaulette is an ornamental fringed tab or badge worn on the shoulder as a

distinguishing mark of rank. A gold epaulette was worn by British Naval

officers in 1759 following the French adoption in 1759. Epaulettes were used on

both army and navy uniforms during the 19th century, but were abandoned by the

British Army in 1855.


Ephedrine

Ephedrine is a central nervous system stimulant used as a bronchodilator for

individuals who have been diagnosed with mild asthma.


Ephod

Ephod was a term applied to some part of the dress of Jewish high-priests, and

used in the Old Testament where it appears to have several meanings.


Epic

An epic is a poetical narrative of heroic achievements. It is largely dramatic

in character, but embraces a greater area and admits many incidents, each of

which might serve as a dramatic plot. In an epic the personality of the

narrator is made much more obvious than is that of the author of a drama.


Epigram

An epigram is a short witty or poignant poem used as an inscription on a tomb,

monument or altar.


Epigraph

An epigraph is an inscription carved on a stone, statue or coin.


Epigraphy

Epigraphy is the study of ancient inscriptions incised on some hard material,

such as wood, stone or metal, as distinct from palaeography which is the study

of ancient manuscripts written on papyrus, parchment or a similar material.


Epilogue

Epilogue is a term usually applied in English literature to a speech or short

poem addressed to the spectators by one of the actors at the close of a play.

It may also be the additional chapter of a book, after the tale proper has

finished.


Episcopacy

Episcopacy is a form of Church government whereby churches are grouped together

in dioceses under the authority of a bishop.


Epistaxis

Epistaxis is a technical term for bleeding from the nose.


Epitaph

An epitaph is a short composition in verse or prose, nominally for the tomb of

a deceased person and generally setting forth his or her virtues and the

survivors' regrets.


Epithalamium

An epithalamium is a nuptual song at marriages.


Epithany

Epithany is a church festival held on January 6th. It was originally held to

commemorate the baptism of Jesus, but now some churches celebrate it as the

visit of the three wise men to Jesus.


Epsom Salts

Epsom Salts is the popular name for hydrated magnesium sulphate, MgSO4.7H2O. It

is used medicinally as a cathartic, and is also used for weighting textiles.


Equilibrium

In chemistry, equilibrium is a state existing in a reversible reaction when the

rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal and the concentrations of

the reactants and products are equal.


Erbium

Erbium is a metal element with the symbol Er.


Erg

Erg is the c.g.s. unit of work or energy, equal to the work done when a force

of one dyne acts through a distance of one centimetre.


Ergonomics

Ergonomics is a discipline treating the consideration of human factors in

design of the working environment and its components; intended to promote

productivity and safety in the tools people work with.


Ergosterol

Ergosterol is a naturally occurring higher alcohol which upon irradiation with

ultra-violet light changes into Vitamin D.


Erinoid

see "Galalith"


Erratics

Erratics are rocks transported by the action of ice during the Quaternary

Glacial Period, often for considerable distances. They help in determining the

extent of the ice-sheets and the direction of their movement.


Erse

Erse is a variant of the word Irish and is a designation given to the ancient

Celtic languages of the Scottish Highlands and Ireland, but more usually

confined to that of Ireland.


Escalator

An escalator is a moving stairway used to transport passengers between two

different levels, such as floors of a building or the street and the platforms

of an underground station. The first escalator was designed and patented by

Seeburger and subsequently developed by the Otis Elevator Company in the USA

and by Waygood-Otis Ltd in Britain. The escalator was first demonstrated to the

public at the Paris Exhibition in 1900.


Eschatology

Eschatology is the study of the doctrines of the life hereafter and of the

expected second coming of Jesus.


Escheat

In feudal tenure, escheat is a reversion of land to the lord, for want of a

tenant qualified to perform the services.


Espalier

An espalier is a wooden framework on which fruit-trees or creepers are trained.


Esperanto

Esperanto is an artificial key-language designed as a means of international

communication. It was invented by Dr Zamenhof, who first produced his system in

1887 by publication of An International Language, by Dr. Esperanto. The

leading characteristics of Esperanto are its simplicity of construction, the

facility by which it may be acquired, and the practical ease and euphony of its

pronunciation. The alphabet is composed of 28 letters each having an invariable

sound. The vocabulary consists of about 900 roots selected from the most

familiar languages.


Essay

Essay is a literary term which was originally applied to a draft or rough copy,

and hence, by the modesty of the author, to an unpretentious but complete

composition. It is now used to mean a prose composition of moderate length,

limited to a single subject.


Essential Oil

The essential oils (ethereal oils, volatile oils) are a group of naturally

occurring pleasant-smelling liquids of vegetable origin.


Estate

An estate is a portion of land in the possession of a single person or

corporation.


Ester

Ester is an organic compound formed by the reaction between alcohol and acid

with the elimination of water.


Estuary

In geography, an estuary is the broad mouth of a river which is affected by the

tides, or more strictly, the region where sea and fresh water meet.


Etch

see "Etching"


Etching

Etching is a process of putting a drawing or design onto a surface, usually

metal, by corroding or scratching away the top surface so as to form the lines

of the design.


Ethanal

see "Acetaldehyde"


Ethane

Ethane is a paraffin hydrocarbon. It is a colourless, odourless gas used as a

fuel in the form of natural gas.


Ethanoic acid

Ethanoic acid is an organic fatty acid.


Ethanol

Ethanol is the chemical name for alcohol.


Ethene

Ethene is an alkene hydrocarbon gas.


Ether

Ether is an anaesthetic. It has the formulae (c2h5)2o.


Ether

see "Ethyl ether"


Ethereal oil

see "Essential Oil"


Ethernet

Ethernet was originally the trade name for a LAN developed by Xerox Corporation

and later supported by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation and

Hewlett-Packard. It is now standardised as IEEE specification 802.3 .


Ethnology

Ethnology is the science dealing with the inter-relatedness of the human family

in terms of the physical appearance, customs, culture, art, economics etc.


Ethyl Acetate

Ethyl Acetate (acetic ether) is a colourless liquid with a characteristic

fruity odour prepared by the esterification of ethyl alcohol with acetic acid.

It is used as a solvent and as a flavouring agent.


Ethyl acrylate

Ethyl acrylate is a colourless, flammable liquid with a penetrating acrid

odour. It is used primarily as an intermediate in the production of

emulsion-based polymers, including those used in textile treatment, surface

coatings, paper treatment, polishes, adhesives, leather treatment, and other

emulsion-based polymers. Ethyl acrylate is also used in the production of other

polymers, including solvent-based surface coatings. Ethyl acrylate is soluble

in ethanol, ether, and chloroform and is slightly soluble in water. It is

incompatible or reactive with oxidizers, peroxides, polymerizers, strong

alkalis, moisture, and chlorosulfonic acid. It polymerizes readily unless an

inhibitor such as hydroquinone is added. When heated to decomposition, ethyl

acrylate emits smoke and acrid fumes. Ethyl acrylate is also known as acrylic

acid ethyl ester, ethyl propenoate, ethoxycarbonylethylene, ethyl-2-propenoate,

and NCI-C50384.


Ethyl ether

Ethyl ether (ether) is a solvent used as a general anesthetic (where it is

known as gas) It is a central nervous system depressant and induces general

anesthesia (analgesia, amnesia, loss of consciousness, inhibition of sensory

and automatic reflexes, and skeletal muscle relaxation).


Ethyl fluid

Ethyl fluid is a mixture consisting principally of tetra-ethyl lead which was

formerly added to petrol as an anti-knocking agent.


Ethyleen dichloride

see "Dichloroethane"


Ethylene

Ethylene is a gaseous hydrocarbon with the formulae C2H4. It contains one

double bond and is the simplest example of an unsaturated compound.


Ethylene Glycol

Ethylene Glycol is a sweet syrupy liquid miscible with water and employed as an

anti-freeze mixture in motor-car radiators and also as a solvent.


Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether

Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is a glycol ether used in hydraulic fluids, as

a coupling agent for water-based coatings, in vinyl and acrylic paints and

varnishes, and as a solvent for varnishes, enamels, spray lacquers, dry

cleaning compounds, textiles, and cosmetics. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is

a colourless liquid with a mild, rancid, ether-like odour. It is soluble in

most organic solvents and mineral oil. It mixes with acetone, benzene, carbon

tetrachloride, ethyl ether, n-heptane and water; it is miscible with many

ketones, ethers, alcohols, aromatic paraffin, and halogenated hydrocarbons.

Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is also known as ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl

ether.


Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether

Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether is a glycol ether used in varnish removers,

lacquers, and as a solvent for printing inks, duplicating fluids, and epoxy.

Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether is a colourless liquid with a sweet, mild odour

and slightly bitter taste. It is miscible in all proportions of acetone,

benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl ether, methanol, and water. It dissolves

many oils, resins, and waxes.


ethyl aldehyde

see "Acetaldehyde"


Etruscan Language

The Etruscan language was spoken by the people of ancient Eturia which

corresponds to the modern Tuscany.


Etymology

Etymology is the science of the origin and relationship of words.


Eucaine

Eucaine is a synthetic local anaesthetic with a chemical structure similar to

that of cocaine.


Euchre

Euchre is a card game popular across a wide area of Canada, from Nova Scotia to

the Midwest) and in the USA (especially in the North-East and Midwest), and

also in the United States Navy.


Euchre

Euchre is a card game usually for 2, 3 or 4 players played with a piquest pack

of 32 cards, omitting all below 7, and with an extra card or joker used which

ranks as the highest trump.


Eudiometer

An eudiometer is a chemical apparatus introduced by Priestley consisting of a

raduated glass tube with one end closed. By submerging the open end of the tube

under water and introducing a known volume of gas, the change in volume that

occurs in the reaction between the two gases can be measured. The eudiometer

was first used in the estimation of the amount of oxygen in the air.


Eugenics

Eugenics is the science of selective breeding to control physical and mental

characteristics.


Euphonium

The euphonium is a musical instrument of the saxhorn family. The bass saxhorn

in B flat used in brass and military bands.


Euphuism

Euphuism is an affected style of language which was prevalent during the time

of Elizabeth I and arose from Euphues; the Anatomy of Wit by John Lyly

published in 1581.


Eureka

Eureka from Borland International is a computer program that can solve any

linear or nonlinear equation and is designed for the person who frequently

works with variables and unknowns in the business and scientific world.

Eureka's structured environment is perfect for the professional or technical

person who may not have a broad understanding of numerical analysis techniques.

After you enter an equation using Eureka's text editor, select the Solve

command and Eureka will determine the values of the variables in equations.

Eureka solves the problem, graphs the solution, and creates a report including

assumptions, graphs, and solutions. Eureka solves inequalities and performs

automatic conversions for units of measure. The product includes built-in

trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, statistical, and financial functions.

Eureka contains a powerful on-screen calculator that performs all one-variable

arithmetic functions quickly and simply as if you were working with a

scientific hand-held calculator. Eureka's separate windows are dedicated to

certain commands, making it easy to write, edit, and solve equations

interactively. The full-screen editor, which is identical to those in SideKick

and Turbo Pascal, uses standard ASCII syntax and editing commands. You can

import equation files from other ASCII editors. Eureka is well equipped to

handle optimisation or linear programming problems. You can solve a system of

equations based on certain constraints, such as maximising profits, creating

the optimal product mix or creating the most efficient work schedule. Eureka

includes a number of sample problems that range from determining probabilities

in a card game to calculating payments on a car loan. There are specialised

accounting functions that financial analysts will find useful for

money-management.


Eurhythmics

Eurhythmics is a system of mental and physical culture invented by Jacques

Dalcroze, based on the interpretation of music by means of rhythmical movements

of the body and limbs. A carefully graded series of exercises aims at producing

an intellectual appreciation of rhythm, combined with perfect physical control,

enabling the head and limbs to be moved independently of one another, and so to

express several separate rhythms simultaneously.


European

see "Europe"


Europium

Europium is a rare metal element with the symbol Eu.


Euskara

see "Basque"


Evil May Day

Evil May Day was the 1st of May, 1517 when apprentices rioted in London,

directing their aggression against foreigners, particularly the French. The

rioters were headed by Lincoln, who, with fifteen others was hanged. 400 more

rioters were bound with ropes and halters around their necks and carried to

Westminster, where they cried mercy mercy and were all pardoned by the

king, Henry VIII.


Evipan

Evipan is an anaesthetic which was discovered in the 1930s. It is the sodium

salt of N-methyl-cyclo-hexenyl-methyl-barbituric acid and was administered by

intravenous injection providing surgical anaesthesia for around 20 minutes.


Examine

Examine by Aquila Software is a fast and versatile text search utility that can

search both text and binary files using either ordinary words or GREP-like

regular expressions, the UNIX searching utility, for more sophisticated

searches. Searches can be across multiple drives over networks or can be

restricted to a single directory with the option of searching subdirectories if

so desired. Files can be viewed either with their associated application or

with the program's own fully configurable internal viewer.


ExamineZip

ExamineZip by Aquila Software is a PC utility that searches for files and text

within files stored in ZIP archives created with PKZIP. File searches can use

DOS wild-cards while text searches can use either ordinary words or GREP-like

regular expressions. Each search can be across multiple drives over networks or

can be restricted to a single directory. The program can also be used as a

fully functional UNZIP utility where the contents of an archive can be listed,

viewed, tested or extracted to disk. Pkunzip is not required.


Excellency

Excellency is a title of honour. It was first assumed by Charlemagne in the 9th

century. Today it is applied to all ambassadors.


Exchequer

The exchequer (or Treasury) is a government department dealing with State

finance. It was introduced by the Normans.


Exchequer Court

The Exchequer Court was established during the reign of Henry I to deal with

questions of finance. It later took upon itself judicial business. The equity

business of the Exchequer was transferred to the Court of Chancery in 1842, and

in 1873 became the Exchequer division of the High Court of Justice.


Excise

Excise is a tax on the production of goods. It was first levied in Britain in

1643 on wines, beers, tobacco etc. to raise funds to support the army against

Charles I.


Exequatur

An exequatur is a document issued by the Head of a State, granting recognition

to a foreign consul appointed thereto.


Exothermic reaction

In chemistry, exothermic reaction is a chemical change in which heat is

liberated.


Extensometer

An extensometer is an apparatus employed for measuring the strain produced in

material when stressed.


Extradition

Extradition is the delivery of a person accused or convicted of a crime to the

State on whose territory the crime was committed, by the State on whose

territory the criminal happens to be.

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