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IBM 3270 Workstation Program

The IBM 3270 Workstation Program allows your IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, or 3270 PC

emulate 3278/79 display terminals. On a PC equipped with a corresponding

emulation adapter and coaxial cable, connection to the host system can be to a

3174/3274/3276 cluster controller, 3745/3725/3720 communications controller, or

directly to the 9370 or 4361 (with an Integrated Communications Adapter). The

product also supports TokenRing attachment to a 3745/3725/3720 communications

controller, 3174 cluster controller in CUT or DFT mode, 3274 cluster controller

in DFT mode, or directly to the 9370 Token-Ring subsystem controller. The

Workstation Program supports up to four SNA sessions, six PC DOS sessions, and

two notepad sessions. It also supports LIM EMS version 3.2 to accommodate

terminalemulation software and DOS applications beyond the 640K RAM limit.

Expanded memory support provides a migration path from the Workstation Program

to OS/2 Extended Edition with its Communications Manager (which provides the

functionality of the Workstation Program.) Because it supports LIM/EMS version

3.2, all DOS sessions access the region above 640K. However, only data, not

applications, can occupy this region. EMS support is available with IBM's

Expanded Memory Adapter (XMA). These adapters can be configured to support EMS

or the extended memory used by OS/2. The Workstation Program supports baseband

or broadband PC Network Adapters and full screen 3278 model 3, 4, or 5 support

with the 8514/A display adapter. File transfers are handled via the

Send/Receive protocol and require a host component to be loaded. The Enhanced

Connectivity Facilities (ECF) Server-Requester Programmers Interface (SRPI) is

supported for the development of programs which take advantage of these

protocols. There is additional programming support for 3270 High Level Language

Application Program Interface (HLLAPI) and Application Programmers Interface


IBM Storyboard Plus

IBM Storyboard Plus is a graphics tool for creating, editing, arranging, and

presenting slide shows on your computer monitor. This program lets you use

special effects, graph manipulation, text, paint, and timing features to

produce impressive presentations. Picture Taker, the first of four modules,

captures screens from other applications programs and saves them on a file

which can be called up within the Picture Maker or Story Editor modules.

Picture Maker is an icon-oriented freehand-painting module for creating graphic

images and modifying images captured with Picture Taker. You can create images

by drawing and colouring text and shapes, or you cut and paste pictures from a

library of clip-art. This module makes extensive use of function keys if you

are not using a mouse. There are eight text fonts, each with five sizes. A zoom

feature allows detailed editing. Story Editor lets you display and sequence

screens created in Picture Maker or Picture Taker.


Ichnology is the scientific study of footprints, first popularised in the 19th

century following the discover in 1828 of the footprints of a tortoise in

sandstone at Annandale by Dr Duncan.


An iconoscope is a type of television camera in which an image of the scene to

be televised is projected on a mosaic consisting of granules of photo-emissive

material. Emission of photo-electrons from each granule in proportion to the

amount of light falling upon it results in the formation of a charge image on

the mosaic.


An identiscope was an optical apparatus for combining two photographic

portraits into one. One was first sold in Britain in 1884.

Igneous rock

Igneous rock is rock formed from cooling lava.


ImageStudio by Letraset, is a gray-scale image editor that gives complete

creative control over images that have been scanned into the Macintosh or

created with other graphics programs. The program provides many of the tools to

modify images that are used by retouching studios. A photograph is scanned into

your computer and you can alter the contrast and brightness of an image. Use

the artist's tools to soften or sharpen an edge, and scale, crop, or rotate the

images. While most scanners offer some editing control, ImageStudio provides a

broader range of editing tools. It imports a finished image into most

desktop-publishing programs or prints out on PostScript-compatible printers for

professional results. While many scanners record gray-scale information to

approximately the range of grays in a continuous-tone photograph, ImageStudio

lets you work with 64 shades of gray. A complete set of artist's tools,

including a paintbrush, charcoal, water drop, and fingertip, are used for a

variety of special effects. ImageStudio includes four palettes that can be

moved: tool, pen, gray map editor, and shade. The tool palette is similar to

tools in other painting programs, although some work slightly differently. The

pen palette offers a selection of pen tips that you can customise or add to the

palette. With the shade palette, you choose the shades you want to work with.

Brightness, contrast, and distribution of shades in an object are controlled in

the gray map editor.


In chemistry, immiscible means incapable of being mixed, as with oil and water.


Impedance is the total opposition offered by a circuit to the flow of

alternating current.

Imperial Cancer Research Fund

The Imperial Cancer Research Fund is a scheme first issued in March 1902 by the

Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Surgeons for systematic

cancer research and the collection of statistical, dietetic and topographical


Imperial Crown

The Imperial Crown was made for King George V for his coronation as King

Emperor at Delhi in 1911, and is part of the British Crown Jewels.

Imperial State Crown

The Imperial State Crown was designed and made for Queen Victoria in 1838. It

is one of the British Crown Jewels.


Implement is a method of execution carried out by thrusting a stake through the



Incandescence is the emission of light due to heat.


The inch is a unit of the imperial scale of measurement of the length

equivalent to 25.4 millimetres. It was defined in 1824 by an act of parliament

that 39.13929 inches is the length of a seconds pendulum in the latitude of

London, vibrating in vacuo at sea level, at the temperature of 62 degrees


Income Tax

Income Tax is a tax levied directly from income of every description. It was

first levied in Britain in January 1799, then repealed in 1802 and reinstated

the same year under the name of Property Tax. It was fixed at 10 percent in

1806 and repealed in 1816 only to be reinstated in 1842. Since then the rate

has fluctuated with the political whims of the current ruling party, and it is

currently graduated but starting at 20 percent.


In chemistry, indicator is a compound which changes colour with changes in the

hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of a solution.


see "Dyspepsia"


Indigo is the dye obtained from the woad plant, isatis tinctoria. It was used

by the Egyptians and other ancient nations.


Indium is a soft, rare metal element with the symbol In.


see "indonesia"


In electronics, inductance is the property of a circuit whereby an

electro-motive force is generated by reason of a change in the magnetic flux

through the circuit.


Inertia is the property of a body that causes it to oppose any change in its

velocity, even if the velocity is zero. An object at rest requires a force to

make it move, and a moving object requires a force to make it slow down,

accelerate, or change direction. Newton called this resistance to a change of

velocity inertia. It has been found that the greater the mass of a body, the

higher is its inertia.

Infectious mononucleosis

see "Glandular Fever"

Inferiority Complex

Inferiority Complex is a term used in psycho-analysis for a complex pattern of

richly emotional ideas connected with what the patient rightly or wrongly

believes to be his inferiority. The feeling of inferiority is often compensated

for by the patient adopting an opposite character.


Infra-red radiation (heat waves) consists of electro-magnetic radiation of

wavelengths shorter than those of the super-high-frequency radio waves and

longer than 7600 angstroms, corresponding to the red end of the visible


Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic Chemistry is the science dealing with the preparation and properties

of the elements and their compounds, except those carbon compounds considered

in Organic Chemistry. Many groups of analogous compounds exist, the oldest

known being acids, bases and salts. Acids usually have a sour taste, change

blue vegetable colours red and react with alkalis to form salts. Alkalis

restore the colours of indicators changed by acids.

Intel Above Board

The Intel Above Board was the first product to incorporate the

Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification (EMS), which allows PC-DOS

programs to access up to eight megabytes beyond the 640K memory limit. Above

Board/286 is particularly useful to users of programs that require all data to

be memory-resident, such as 1-2-3, Symphony, and Framework III. With an Above

Board you can access up to 4Mb additional memory on a PC and 8Mb additional

memory on an AT. This allowed users to create enormous spreadsheets - up to 15

times that available under normal DOS constraints. If a machine has less than

640K, Above Board memory could be used to back-fill or assign a portion of its

memory to fill up system memory. Above Boards had software for a RAM disk,

print buffer and menu-driven configuration program. Intel Above Board PS/286

was functionally equivalent to the Above Board 286 and added a serial port and

a parallel port. Above Board provided expanded memory for products which work

better with memory beyond the 640K DOS limit such as Lotus 1-2-3 or require

additional memory such as IBM OS/2.

Interactive EasyFlow

EasyFlow by Haventree Software is a powerful flowcharting package for the IBM

PC, that provides tools to create and edit flowcharts and ornanisation charts.

It is not a freehand drawing program, but rather a package that provides you

with a large set of objects to choose from and the ability to place these

objects on-screen in any position. Either the keyboard or a mouse can be used

to choose shapes and position them in the desired location. Automatic text

centering within shapes is available horizontally and vertically. EasyFlow

understands the concept of a "from" shape and a "destination" shape and creates

a straight connector line between the shapes in your flowchart. If you move the

shapes within the chart, the lines automatically maintain the connection

between the from shape and the destination shape. This way, the chart evolves

as you create it; you do not need to plan ahead of time. Editing charts is

simple with this program. Text edited within an object is automatically

recentered. Individual shapes or groups of shapes can be cut, copied, moved,

and deleted from a chart. You can also save sections of a chart to be merged

with another chart. Charts can be compressed horizontally or vertically so

charts that are too large to fit on a single page can be compressed and printed

on one page. EasyFlow offers a useful way to manage the creation of charts. The

screen displays two small windows and one large window. The large Chart Window

shows a condensed representation of the chart. You cannot see the words inside

the objects, but you can see the individual objects and lines and the

relationship between them. The Chart Window shows the current position of the

cursor in the chart using an invisible grid as reference. Each object takes up

one space. The smaller Shape Window shows the content of the shape under the

cursor in full detail. As you cursor around the chart, the current shape is

always shown in the Shape Window. There is also a small Text/Message Window

r text entry and for messages from the program. Charts can be more than 16

shapes in width and height. The size is limited only by memory available. If

your chart is too large for the printer paper size, EasyFlow breaks the chart

and prints it in page-size pieces.


INTERCAL (said by the authors to stand for `Compiler Language With No

Pronounceable Acronym') is a computer language designed by Don Woods and James

Lyon in 1972. INTERCAL is purposely different from all other computer languages

in all ways but one; it is purely a written language, being totally unspeakable.


An interface is a shared boundary between two devices. These may be a human and

a machine for example. Computer operating systems use an interface to receive

and transmit data to and from a human operator.


Interlisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language. It is a computer

programming language designed for procedure orientated representation. It has

all the standard features of Lisp, plus extensive debugging facilities, and a

DWIM self-correcting facility.


Interpol is an international police organisation with headquarters in Paris.


see "Intestine"


Invar is an alloy of iron and nickel.


Invisible describes something that cannot be seen.


Iodine is a non-metallic halogen element usually obtained as a heavy, shining,

blackish-grey crystalline form and is used especially in medicine, photography

and analysis. It has the symbol I.

Iodine number

In chemistry, iodine number is the number of grams of iodine required to

saturate 100 grams of fat.


An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms. The charge occurs from a surplus or

deficiency of electrons.


see "ion"


In chemistry, ionization is the separation of an electrolyte into charged ions

in solution.

Ionization Voltage

Ionization Voltage is the potential which an electron must traverse before it

attains sufficient kinetic energy to ionize by collision an atom of a specified



The ionosphere is the ionised layer of the earth's atmosphere. It extends over

altitudes from about 50 km to about 600 km.


Iridium is a metal element with the symbol Ir.


see "Osmiridium"


Irish is a term used to denote something or someone from Ireland.


IRMA is the standard product for a direct link between the IBM PC, XT, AT, or

PS/2 model 25 or 30 and an IBM SNA (Systems Network Architecture) network. It

offered the first coax connection between a PC and IBM mainframe. IRMA connects

to an IBM 3174, 3274, or 3276 cluster controller that can be directly or

remotely attached to the mainframe, or be attached to an integral terminal

controller with a type A adapter. The package includes a hardware adapter card

that fits into a full-length slot in a PC, emulation software and file-transfer

software. IRMA fits into existing 3270 networks by attaching directly to

3278/79 controller ports configured for Control Unit Terminal (CUT) single

session support. Nothing additional is needed. IRMAlink file transfer software

for TSO and CMS environments is included. IRMA provides emulation of IBM 3278

terminal models 2, 3, and 4 and 3279 colour terminal models 2A, 3A, 2B and 38.

Support for 12 IBM keyboards, light pen, four and seven colour modes, and

APL/TEXT keyboards is also included. In addition, it supports hotkey switching

between DOS and terminal sessions and Application Programming Interface (API)

support for development of programs which interact directly with a host session

through the hardware adapter. Sample programs for the API are included. IRMA 2

is an enhanced version of the original that adds support for the IBM 3278 model

5 terminal through horizontal and vertical scrolling. If you use specific 132

column supported display adapters, you can get full-screen monochrome and

colour model 5 support. IRMA 2 also includes keyboard utilities which allow

remapping and let you create macros for frequently repeated commands and new

keyboard profiles. Its Extended Attribute Buffer (EAB) supports character

attributes such as normal, blinking, reverse video, highlighted, and underlined

(mono only), APL character set support and the ability to capture terminal

screens to disk or local/system printer. Because IRMA 2 uses

e-loaded instead of PROM-loaded microcode, it can be upgraded by changing

diskettes rather than by replacing PROM chips. The IRMA 2 MCA offers the same

functionality as the IRMA 2 for the IBM PS/2 models 50, 50z, 60, 70, and 80.

Iron Cross

The Iron Cross was an order of knighthood established by Frederick William III

of Prussia in 1813 to honour patriotic bravery in the war against France.


Irradiation is the process of exposing something to radiation. It is used to

preserve food and destroy cancer growths.


Irrigation is the process of supplying water to land through a series of

artificial waterways.


Irula is a dialect of Tamil.


An isallobar is a line on a map passing through all the places with equal

changes in pressure over a certain period.


Ischaemia is the condition of insufficient blood supply to a part of the body,

for example to the heart muscle, causing angina.

ISO 8859

ISO 8859 is a series of computer character sets all of which have American

ASCII in their low (7-bit) half, invisible control characters in positions 128

to 159 and 96 fixed width graphics in positions 160-255.

ISO 8859-1

see "Latin-1"

ISO 8859-2

see "Latin-2"

ISO 8859-5

ISO 8859-5 is a computer character set of Cyrillic letters purporting to

support Bulgarian, Byelorussian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian.

However, it lacks the Ukrainian ghe with a downstroke, and so KOI8-R is

generally more popular.

Isoelectric point

In chemistry, the isoelectric point is the pH at which a substance is

electrically neutral or at it's minimum ionization.


In chemistry, isomers are compounds which have the same molecular formula but

different structural formulas.

Isonicotinic acid hydrazide

Isonicotinic acid hydrazide is an agent found by Domagk to inhibit the growth

of tubercle bacilli. It has been used since 1952 in the treatment of

tuberculosis. It is closely related to the vitamin nicotinamide, and is also

used in the treatment of depression.

Isotonic solution

In chemistry, an isotonic solution is a solution having the same osmotic

pressure as another with which it is compared.


An isotope is a form of an element which has a different atomic weight and

nuclear properties than other isotopes of the same element.


In chemistry, isotopes are atoms of the same element having the same atomic

number but having different atomic weights.

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