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L'Hombre

L'Hombre is a card game that was developed in Spain in the early 17th century,

as a variation of an earlier four player game, also called Hombre. The three

player version, which in Spain was originally called Hombre Renegado spread

rapidly across Europe and during the 17th and 18th centuries became the premier

card game, occupying a position of prestige similar to Bridge today. It was

variously known as Hombre, Ombre or L'Hombre, and over the years it acquired

many variations, of increasing complexity. Its popularity was eclipsed in the

late 18th century by a new four player variant Quadrille, which was in turn

displaced by Whist, Boston and eventually Bridge. Although L'Hombre died out in

other parts of Europe, it remained popular in Denmark right up to the 20th

century, and is still played there today. The game is organized with a L'Hombre

union in Jutland, the western part of Denmark. L'Hombre was one of the first

games to introduce bidding, through which one player becomes the declarer,

trying to make a contract, with the other players cooperating to prevent him.

The declarer was originally called Hombre (i.e. the man). It was from L'Hombre

that the idea of bidding was adopted into other card games such as Tarot, Skat

and Boston.


L-band

L-band is the frequency band from 390 to 1550 mhz employed in radar.


La Leche League International

La Leche League International is an organization of women who offer information

and encouragement to mothers who want to breast-feed their babies. The league

provides counselling and education to parents and professionals through

meetings, seminars, and publications. Its publications include a book called

The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding. The league also distributes brochures on

childbirth, child care, and related subjects. It directs group discussions for

mothers who are breast-feeding and other interested women.


La Vache

see "Aluette"


Labret

A labret is an ornament inserted in a hole pierced through the lip.


Labyrinth

A labyrinth is a maze like structure.


Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic acid formed by certain bacteria during fermentation.

It also occurs in the muscles when they are exercised vigorously. It is used in

food preservation and pharmaceuticals.


Lactoglucose

see "Galactose"


Lactose

Lactose is a sugar found in solution in milk. It is the combination of glucose

and galactose.


Ladanum

Ladanum is a gum resin extracted from plants of the genus Cistus and used in

perfume.


Ladino

Ladino is a Spanish dialect spoken by Sephardic Jews.


Laevulose

see "Fructose"


Lagoon

A lagoon is a shallow stretch of salt water partly or wholly separated from the

sea by a narrow strip of land or a low sand-bank or coral reef.


Lallans

Lallans is a Lowland Scottish language.


Lambda

Lambda is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet.


Lambert

The lambert is the unit of luminance (the light shining from a surface), equal

to one lumen per square centimetre. In scientific work the candela per square

meter is preferred.


Lambrequin

Lambrequin was originally a material covering worn over a helmet. It is now a

term applied to a short piece of drapery hung over the top of a door or window.


Lamella

A lamella is a thin plate, scale or film of bone or tissue.


Lamina

The lamina is the blade on the leaf on either side of the midrib on flowering

plants. It is usually the primary organ of photosynthesis.


Lamp

A lamp is a vessel filled with oil and fitted with a wick which is then used to

provide light. The term has come to apply to any device which provides

illumination, including electric lamps.


Lampblack

Lampblack is a pigment deroved from oil and resin soot.


Lancastrian

A Lancastrian is an inhabitant of Lancashire.


Lancet

A lancet is a fine pointed, double-edged surgical knife.


Land Rover Defender 90 Tdi

The Land Rover Defender 90 Tdi is a British automobile with 4 x 4 drive and a

2495 CC engine giving a top speed of 85 mph and roughly 28 mpg.


Landau

A landau is a four-wheeled carriage with a top, the back and front of the top

can be raised and lowered independently of each other.


Landscape

Landscape is a term applied to inland scenery, or a picture of inland scenery.


Lane

A lane is a narrow road, usually between hedges, or a passage way.


Lanolin

Lanolin is a wax derived from sheep's wool.


LANSpool

LANSpool is a software utility that lets you share locally attached printers

over a Novell NetWare local area nehuork. Since NetWare allows only five

printers to be attached directly to the server, a utility such as LANSpool can

be an inexpensive way to add printers to a Novell network. LANSpool provides

users with a means to locate printers conveniently. LANSpool lets you connect

networked printers to any PC on the LAN. These can be dedicated as print

servers, or non-dedicated and serve as workstations as well.


Lanthanide

The lanthanides are a group of 15 elements.


Lanthanum

Lanthanum is a rare metal lanthanide element with the symbol La. It was

discovered in the oxide of cerium by Mosander in 1839.


Lanyard

A lanyard is a cord attached to a knife or whistle with which to hold it, or to

serve as a handle.


Lap-Link

Lap-Link III is a data migration product that takes a different approach from

most other products. The package is ideally suited to those who find DOS

commands cryptic, since Lap-Link III presents users with a completely

menu-driven operation. Unlike other data migration products that only operate

as DOS device drivers, Lap-Link III can perform lightning fast file transfer

from one format to another without its optional device driver being installed.

Lap-Link IIl's unique split-screen design helps you keep track of what files

you are working with. You can even tag several files or use wildcards when

tagging files marked for transfer.


Lapel

A lapel is a part of the front of a coat which is folded back towards the

shoulder.


Larder

A larder is a room or cupboard used for storing provisions.


Larixinic Acid

see "Maltol"


Laryngoscope

The laryngoscope is an instrument consisting of a concave mirror, by which

light is thrown upon a small plane mirror placed in the posterior part of the

cavity of the mouth. It is used in the examination of the vocal cords and the

interior of the larynx. The laryngoscope was invented by Manuel Garcia in 1855.


Laser

Laser is an acronym for Light amplification by stimulated emission of

radiation. It is a device producing an intense narrow beam of light.


Lasso

A lasso is a rope with a running noose used for catching cattle.


Last

A last was a British measure which when applied to cod was equal to 12 barrels;

applied to hides 12 dozen; appled to leather 200 skins; applied to pitch or tar

14 barrels; appled to wool 12 sacks.


Last One

see "Crazy Eights"


Last One

Last One is a variation of the card game Crazy Eights which originated in Walla

Walla prison in Washington State, USA in the 1980's.


Latches

Latches version 4 is an access control product for remote access or the office

allowing increased security for data stored on a computer.


Latchet

A latchet was a thong used for fastening a shoe.


Latent heat

In chemistry, latent heat is the heat absorbed in the changing of a substance

from solid to liquid, or from a liquid to a gas.


Lath

A lath is a thin narrow strip of wood. Laths are used for supporting plaster,

and to construct trellis.


Lathe

A lathe is a machine used for turning wood, metal and other materials by

rotating the article against tools which cut it to shape.


Laths

see "Lath"


Latin

Latin is an Indo-European language which originated amongst the people of

ancient Latium and the Romans.


Latin-1

Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) is one of the ISO 8859 computer character sets. It covers

most Western European languages such as Albanian, catalan, Danish, Danish,

Dutch, English, Faroese, Finnish, French, German, Galician, Irish, Icelandic,

Italian, Nowegian, Portugese, Spanish and Swedish but lacks the ligatures Dutch

ij, French oe and the old-style German quotation marks. It is the base

character set of HTML.


Latin-2

Latin-2 (ISO 8859-2) is an ISO 8859 computer character set supporting most

Latin-written Slavic and Central European languages such as Czech, German,

Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak and Slovene.


Latten

Latten is a yellow alloy of copper, zinc, lead and tin used for making

monumental brasses and church candlesticks.


Lattice

A lattice is a framework of laths crossed diagonally so as to form a net-like

structure to be used as a screen or door.


Laudanum

Laudanum is a tincture of opium.


Laugh and Lie Down

Laugh and Lie Down is a rather unusual fishing game for five players, that was

played in England in the 16th and 17th centuries.


Lauramide DEA

Lauramide DEA is a white, waxy, nonionic, artificial chemical used in shampoos,

bubble baths and detergents as a surfactant and foam-builder.


Lava

Lava is the molten material expelled by a volcano. It cools to form igneous

rock.


Lawrence Tube

The Lawrence tube is a form of picture tube for colour television, having a

single electron gun, the beam from which scans the luminescent screen in

horizontal lines, each line consisting of three closely spaced lines of three

phosphors producing red, green and blue luminescence respectively. The beam is

deflected to the line of appropriate colour by information contained in the

signal waveform.


Lawrencium

Lawrencium is an artificial radioactive element with the symbol Lr.


Laxative

A laxative is a substance which loosens the bowels assisting or encouraging the

excretion of faeces.


Lazaret

A lazaret is a hospital for the poor, especially for lepers.


Lead

Lead is a soft, malleable, metallic element with the symbol Pb. It occurs in

many ores, the most important of which is galena. It is a very dense metal, and

is used as a shield in environments where radiation abounds, such as x-rays and

the nuclear industry.


Leaflet

In botanical terms, a leaflet is a division of a compound leaf.


League

A league was a measurement of distance, it was equivalent to roughly 3 miles or

just under 5 km.


Leather

Leather is a material prepared from the hides of dead animals.


Lebensraum

Lebensraum was the theory of living space used by the Nazis to justify their

annexation of neighbouring states on the grounds that Germany was overpopulated

during the 1930s.


Lecithin

Lecithin is a lipid containing nitrogen and phosphorus. It forms a vital part

of plant and animal cell membranes. It is used as an emulsifier in foods, but

is a perfectly natural additive.


Leeward

Leeward is a nautical expression, referring to the opposite side of the ship to

that from which the wind is blowing.


Legacy

A legacy is a sum of money or article bequeathed by will and handed down from a

predecessor.


Leo

Leo is a sign of the zodiac represented by a lion.


Liang

see "Tael"


Libra

Libra is a sign of the zodiac represented by a set of scales.


Librax

Librax is a tradename for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.


Libritabs

Libritabs is a tradename for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride


Librium

Librium is a tradename for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride


Ligan

Ligan is a wreck consisting of goods sunk in the sea, but tied to a buoy so

that they may be found again.


Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation detectable by the eye and of wavelengths

between approximately 4000 and 7000 Angstrom units. The different colours are

represented by different wavelengths ranging from violet at 3600 - 4300

Angstroms to red at 6470 - 7600 Angstroms.


Lightning

Lightning is a spark discharge of electricity between two charged clouds or

between a charged cloud and the earth.


Limonene

Limonene is a terpene occurring in the oil of lemon, lime, lavender, caraway

and bergamot.


Link

The link is a unit of the imperial scale of measurement of length equivalent to

7.92 inches.


Lipid

A lipid is an organic substance that is soluble in solvents such as alcohol but

not in water.


Lipowitz's Alloy

Lipowitz's alloy is a fusible alloy consisting of 50 per cent bismuth, 26.5

percent lead, 13.3 per cent tin and 10.2 per cent cadmium.


LISP

LISP (from `LISt Processing language', but mythically from `Lots of Irritating

Superfluous Parentheses') is a computer programming language. It is a language

based on the ideas of (a) variable-length lists and trees as fundamental data

types, and (b) the interpretation of code as data and vice-versa. It was

Invented by John McCarthy at MIT in the late 1950s, and is actually older than

any other high-level language still in use except FORTRAN. Accordingly, it has

undergone considerable adaptive radiation over the years; modern variants are

quite different in detail from the original LISP 1.5.


Lithium

Lithium is a metal element with the symbol Li.


Lithography

Lithography is a printing process invented by Senefelder in 1796.


Litmus

Litmus is a dye derived from lichens and used to test acidity.


Litz

see "Litzendraht"


Litzendraht

Litzendraht (Litz) is a composite conductor designed for use in high-frequency

circuits, and composed of a large number of fine wires, each separately

insulated, and interwoven in a special way. This construction ensures a high

ratio of surface area per unit length to cross-sectional area, and thus reduces

the skin effect.


Load

The load was a British measure which when applied to bricks was equal to 500

lbs; applied to earth and gravel equal to a cubic yard; applied to hay and

straw equal to 36 trusses; applied to lime equal to 32 bushels.


Loba

Central American Loba is a card game requiring two ordinary 52-card decks plus

four jokers, making 108 cards in all. It is usually played with from two to

four players, but can be played with as many as five.


Localizer

A localizer is a form of radio beacon used in instrument landing systems for

aircraft. It is located about 230 meters beyond the stop end of an airfield

runway and radiates two signals of different frequencies from two aerials whose

polar diagrams overlap in such a way that their signals are of equal strength

along the centre of the runway. In the receiving equipment fitted in the

aircraft the two signals are applied to a centre-zero instrument. When the

indicating pointer of the instrument is in the centre (zero) position the pilot

knows that he is correctly aligned with the runway.


Loch

Loch is a Scottish term applied to both lakes and inlets.


Lockjaw

see "Tetanus"


Logo

Logo is a computer programming language designed to teach mathematical

concepts. It was developed in the early 1970s in America.


London Commodity Exchange

The London Commodity Exchange is a company that provides services for commodity

markets in non-metals, including cocoa, sugar, grain, coffee, petroleum,

rubber, and wool.


Long Friday

Long Friday was the Saxon name for the festival now called Good Friday.


Long Waves

Long Waves are radio waves having wavelengths between 1000 and 10,000 meters,

corresponding to frequencies from 300 khz down to 30 khz.


Loofah

A loofah or luffa is the fibrous skeleton of the cylindrical fruit of the

dishcloth gourd (Luffa cylindrica). It is used as a bath sponge.


Looking for Friends

Looking for Friends is a Chinese trick taking card game for 6 to 12 or more

players. It is an expanded version of the well known four player game of

Hundred (Da Bai Fen). Looking for Friends is played with multiple packs and has

several extra features: at any time there are two teams but the partnerships

are variable and unknown at the start of the play (hence the name of the game),

and there are extra opportunities to play several cards at once to a trick. It

is one of the most successful games for 6 or more people, and is almost the

only trick-taking game of this size that works well. Looking for Friends is

played with two or more identical standard packs shuffled together. 6 or 7

players use two packs, from 8 to 11 players use 3 packs, and 12 or more players

use 4 packs. Sufficient red and black jokers are included so that all the cards

can be distributed equally to the players, with a kitty of six cards left over.


Loran

Loran is a radio navigation system of the hyperbolic type and developed in

America chiefly for long-range navigation over the sea. Chains of transmitters

radiate high power 50 micro-second pulses on frequencies in the order of 2 mhz.


Los Angeles Angeles

see "California Angels"


Lotus Freelance

Lotus Freelance is an integrated-graphics program that gives charting

capabilities and lets you add text and graphic images to presentations. With

the various tools provided, you can create presentations that include

organization charts, text charts, logos, diagrams, business graphs, and

free-form drawings. Lotus Freelance includes a Portfolio feature that assists

you in planning, organising, previewing, and printing multiple files. If you

have created graphs within your spreadsheet, Freelance can enhance them with

symbols, text, diagrams, and icons. Graphics may be edited by changing the

size, colour, fill pattern, line type, and font. Objects may be copied, moved,

replicated, deleted, undeleted, turned, flipped, and joined into a single

symbol which can then be edited as a single object. Freelance automatically

scales, sizes, and formats its charts. You can create high-quality graphics by

using Freelance's drawing aids such as grids, rulers, over 40 templates, or by

merging any of over 700 library symbols into any diagram or drawing. You can

even create special symbols such as your company logo. Freelance's unique

drawing area lets you keep frequently used symbols on one page and import them

to your graph on the other page with a single keystroke. Freelance is similar

to drawing programs because it is object-oriented rather than a bit-mapped. It

recognizes the pieces of your image as unique objects and manipulates and

modifies objects in a way similar to stand-alone drawing programs. For example,

Freelance understands that a pie chart created in Lotus 1-2-3 is made up of

individual slices that can be edited individually. The product has its own

basic charting capabilities for creating 12 chart types including pie, bar,

line, mixed, exploded, table, bar-line, XY scatter, high-low-close text, and

multiple charts. Data entry is consistent across all chart types. A built-in

chart composition system automatically adjusts datadriven chart layouts to

accommodate data,

ven when it changes. Freelance is a WYSIWYG program that lets you accurately

preview graphics files on-screen. The WYSIWYG preview displays colours and font

attributes, as well as true placement of graphics elements on the page.

Freelance includes Datalinks and Visible Data Import that creates a lasting

link between a chart form and a spreadsheet, database, ASCII, or SYLK file.

When a chart file is retrieved, you can choose to have it automatically updated

with the latest data for the source file.


Lotus Symphony

Lotus Symphony is a multi-function, fully integrated business software package

which provides users with the ability to create documents which mix text,

numeric data, and graphs and produce presentation quality output. It includes a

windowing capability, macros, and a command programming language. Symphony's

powerful word processor includes an 80,000-word add-in dictionary and a

text-outliner to help you organise ideas. There is automatic paragraph

reformatting and wildcard characters may be used to assist in

search-and-replace tasks. Symphony's database is form-oriented. You can insert,

move, edit, and delete fields directly from the form environment. There are

several database statistical functions that find averages, totals, and maximum

values for records meeting selected criteria. The communications function

accesses information from mainframes, minis, or other personal computers.

Symphony comes with pre-configured settings for many on-line information

services. Symphony's spreadsheet is based on that of Lotus 1-2-3. In addition,

the Viewer function lets you browse and retrieve files from within Symphony.

Symphony files are fully compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 files and have a similar

interface. The product includes several add-ins. Allways lets you add fonts,

shading, boxes, and lines to a spreadsheet. Magellan Viewer makes it easy to

browse, retrieve, or link files. @BASE lets you create, edit, and manage dBase

files stored on disk from within Symphony, or access multiple database files

simultaneously.


Lough

Lough is an Irish term applied to both lakes and inlets.


Lumen

The Lumen the unit of luminous flux, equal to the amount of light emitted per

unit solid angle by a standard international candle.


Luminescence

Luminescence is the emission of light as the result of any stimulus other than

heat. If the stimulus is heat the emission of light is termed incandescence.


Luminous flux

Luminous flux is the amount of light emitted from a light source.


Lute

The lute is a family of stringed musical instruments that were in use during

the 14th to 18th centuries.


Lutetium

Lutetium is a metal element with the symbol Lu.


Lux

The lux is the SI unit of illuminance or illumination (the light falling on an

object). It is equivalent to one lumen per square meter or to the illuminance

of a surface one meter distant from a point source of one candela.


Lysis

In biology, a lysis is any process that destroys a cell by rupturing its

membrane or cell wall.

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