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N-hexane

N-hexane is a chemical made from crude oil. It is used in laboratories,

primarily when it is mixed with similar chemicals to produce solvents. Common

names for these solvents are commercial hexane, mixed hexanes, petroleum ether,

and petroleum naphtha. The major use for solvents containing n-hexane is to

extract vegetable oils from crops such as soybeans, flax, peanuts, and

safflower seed. They are also used as cleaning agents in the textile,

furniture, shoemaking, and printing industries, particularly rotogravure

printing. N-hexane is also an ingredient of special glues that are used in the

roofing, shoe, and leather industries. N-hexane is used in binding books,

working leather, shaping pills and tablets, canning, manufacturing tyres, and

making baseballs. Consumer products that contain small amounts of n-hexane

include petrol, rubber cement, typeover correction fluids, non-mercury

thermometers, alcohol preparations, and aerosols in perfumes. N-hexane is also

a component of preparations such as paint thinners, general purpose solvents,

degreasing agents, or cleaners. N-hexane is a colourless liquid with a slightly

disagreeable odour. It evaporates very easily into the air and dissolves only

sightly in water. It is highly flammable, and its vapors can be explosive. It

may be ignited by heat, sparks, and flames. Flammable vapor may spread away

from a spill. N-hexane can react vigorously with oxidizing materials such as

liquid chlorine, concentrated oxygen, and sodium hypochlorite. It will attack

some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. It is insoluble in water and

miscible with alcohol, chloroform, and ether. It is incompatible with strong

oxidizers. N-hexane is also known as hexane and hexyl hydride.


N-Nitrosodiphenylamine

N-Nitrosodiphenylamine is a yellow or orange-brown solid with no odour. It is

soluble in acetone, ethanol, benzene, and ethylene dichloride. Its flash point

and flammability limits are unknown. It is not a naturally occurring substance;

it is a man-made chemical that was used in rubber compounding as a retarder to

prevent premature vulcanization of rubber compounds during mixing and other

processing operations. It was generally used with sulphenamide accelerators in

tyre compounds and other mechanical goods. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine was also used

as an intermediate in the manufacture of p-nitrosodiphenylamine, which was

subsequently used to produced N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine and other

rubber-processing chemicals. American manufacturers stopped producing

N-nitrosodiphenylamine in the early 1980s because new and more efficient

chemicals were found to replace it. It also had several undesirable side

effects which do not occur with replacement chemicals. N-nitrosodiphenylamine

is also known as diphenylnitrosoamine, N-nitroso-n-phenylaniline,

N-nitroso-n-phenylbenzenamine, N,n-diphenylnitrosoamine, nitrous diphenylamide,

NDPA, and NDPhA.


NACK

Nack (nak) is the 'Negative Acknowledge' character in many data codes;

typically used to indicate receipt of a corrupted message, ordering

retransmission.


Nail

The nail is a unit of the imperial measurement of length equivalent to 1/16

yards.


NAK

see "NACK"


Naphthalene

Naphthalene is a white solid hydrocarbon with a strong smell; is also called

mothballs, moth flakes, white tar, and tar camphor. Naphthalene is a natural

component of fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal; it is also formed when

natural products such as wood or tobacco are burned. The principal use for

naphthalene is as an intermediate in the production of phthalic anhydride,

which is used as an intermediate in the production of phthalate plasticizers,

resins, phthaleins, dyes, pharmaceuticals, insect repellents, and other

materials; other products made from naphthalene are moth repellents, in the

form of mothballs or crystals, and toilet and diaper pail deodorant blocks.

Naphthalene is also used for making leather tanning agents, and the insecticide

carbaryl. There are two common compounds related to naphthalene:

1-methylnaphthalene (C11H10), also called alpha-methylnaphthalene; and

2-methylnaphthalene (C11H10), called beta-methylnaphthalene. Naphthalene

evaporates easily; when its vapors are mixed with air, the mixture can burn

easily. It is soluble in benzene, alcohol, ether, and acetone; it is soluble in

water at 20 degrees C. It is a moderate fire hazard when exposed to heat or

flame; it reacts with oxidizing materials and chromium anhydride. It is a

moderate explosion hazard, in the form of dust, when exposed to heat or flame.

Naphthalene is also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar,

NCI-C52904, albocarbon, and naphthene.


NASA

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is an American government

agency founded in 1958 for space flight and aeronautical research. Its

headquarters are in Washington DC. Its main installation is the Kennedy Space

Centre.


Nascent

In chemistry, nascent is the condition of an element that has just been

released in the monatomic state in a chemical reaction.


National Gallery

The National Gallery is an art gallery in London. It was started in 1824 when

the British government purchased the Angerstein collection of 38 pictures for

57,000 pounds. The first exhibition of them took place on the 10th of May 1824

in Pall-mall.


Nature

Nature is a weekly illustrated scientific journal. It first appeared on the 4th

of November 1869 edited by Joseph Norman Lockyer.


Nautical Mile

The Nautical Mile is a unit of measurement used by ships. It is 1852 meters

long.


Nebula

A nebula is a cloud of gas and dust in space. Before the invention of the

telescope, the term nebula was applied to all celestial objects of a diffuse

appearance. As a result, many objects now known to be star clusters or galaxies

were originally called nebulas. Nebulas exist within other galaxies as well as

in our own Milky Way galaxy. They are classified as planetary nebulas,

supernova remnants, and diffuse nebulas, including reflecting, emission, and

dark nebulas. Small, very bright nebulas called Herbig-Haro objects are found

in dense interstellar clouds and are probably the products of gas jets expelled

by new stars in the process of formation. Planetary nebulas, or planetaries,

are so called because many of them superficially resemble planets through

telescopes. They are actually shells of material that an old average star sheds

during a late, red giant stage in its evolution, before becoming a white dwarf.

The Ring nebula of the constellation Lyra, a typical planetary, has a

rotational period of 132,900 years and a mass calculated to be about 14 times

that of the earth's sun. Several thousand planetaries have been discovered in

the Milky Way. More spectacular but fewer in number are nebulas that are the

fragments of supernova explosions, perhaps the most famous of which is the Crab

nebula in Taurus, now fading at the rate of about 0.4 percent per year. Nebulas

of this kind are strong emitters of radio waves, as a result of the explosions

that formed them and the probable pulsar remnants of the original star. Diffuse

nebulas are extremely large structures, often many light-years wide, that have

no definite outline and a tenuous, cloudlike appearance. They are either

luminous or dark. The former shine as a result of the light of neighboring

stars. They include some of the most striking objects in the sky, such as the

Great nebula in Orion. The tremendous streams of matter in the diffuse nebulas

are intermingled in violent, chaotic currents. Many thousands of

uminous nebulas are known. Spectral studies show that light emanating from them

consists of reflected light from stars and also, in so-called emission nebulas,

of stimulated radiation of ionized gases and dust from the nebulas themselves.

Dark, diffuse nebulas are observed as nonluminous clouds or faintly luminous,

obscuring portions of the Milky Way and too distant from the stimulation of

neighboring stars to reflect or emit much light of their own. One of the most

famous dark nebulas is the Horsehead nebula in Orion, so named for the

silhouette of the dark mass in front of a more luminous nebular region. The

longest dark rift observed on photographic plates of the star clouds of the

Milky Way is a succession of dark nebulas. Both dark nebulas and luminous

nebulas are considered likely sites for the processes of dust-cloud

condensation and the formation of new stars.


Nematodes

see "nematode"


Nembutal

see "Phenobarbital"


Neon

Neon is an inert gaseous element with the symbol Ne. It is one of the rare

components of the atmosphere and is used in some forms of discharge tubes and

lamps, in which it gives a characteristic red glow.


Neper

The neper is a unit used for comparing two currents, in a similar way to the

bel or decibel.


Neptunium

Neptunium is an artificial element with the symbol Np produced in nuclear

reactors.


Nerts

The card game of Nerts is also known as Pounce, Racing Demon, Peanuts or

Squeal. It is a competitive patience game for two or more players, using a pack

of cards for each player (or team). The players race to get rid of the cards

from their "Nerts piles" (also kown as "Pounce piles", etc. - depending on what

you call the game) by building them from the ace up onto common foundations.


Neutrino

A neutrino is a short-lived uncharged particle of zero or near zero rest mass.

They occur in certain nuclear reactions.


Neutron

The neutron is a subatomic uncharged particle, of slightly greater mass than a

proton and forming a constituent part of the nucleus of all atoms except

hydrogen atoms, which consist of a single proton. It may be considered as the

equivalent of one proton and one electron.


Neve

In geography, neve is snow which has become a hard crystalline mass, but has

not been compacted into ice.


New English Art Club

The New English Art Club is a British society founded in 1886 by a group of

artists whose progressive work was being largely rejected by the Royal Academy.

Their work was largely influenced by recent French work.


Newmarket

see "Boodle"


Newspaper

A newspaper is a publication reporting and commenting upon news. The first

newspapers were published by the Romans.


Niacin

see "Vitamin B3"


Nickel

Nickel is a metal element with the symbol Ni.


Nickel Silver

Nickel Silver (German Silver, Pack-Fong) is an alloy of copper, nickel and zinc

in different proportions. Sometimes lead is added if the alloy is destined for

making candlesticks or casts.


Nicotine

Nicotine is an alkaloid derived from the leaves of tobacco.


Nicotinic acid

see "Vitamin B3"


Niello

Niello is a black, metal, amalgam of sulphur added to copper, silver or lead

and used for filling engraved lines in metal objects.


Nimbostratus

Nimbostratus is a type of cloud, low, dark grey and trailing.


Nimbus

A nimbus is a bright cloud or halo added to pictures of saints etc. implying

deity.


Nine Card Don

Nine Card Don is a card game and distant relative of All Fours which is played

in parts of England and Wales. According to Arthur Taylor's "Guiness Book of

Traditional Pub Games" published in 1992 it is also known as Big Don, Long Don,

or Welsh Don. The game is normally played in pubs, where there may be more than

four people waiting for a game. In this case, a procedure called 'jacks out' is

used to decide which four people will play. Those who wish to take part (5 to 7

people - because if there were 8 you would have two complete tables) each place

a stake (typically a pound - maybe 5 pounds) on the table, and the cards are

dealt out one at a time, face up to the stakes. When a jack appears, the player

who contributed that stake is in the game, and no further cards are dealt to

that stake. Where the four jacks eventually land, those are the players. All

the stakes, including those of the players who were not selected, form a pool

that goes to the eventual winners of the game.

Partnerships are then determined by cutting cards. In some pubs, people also

bet on whom will be partners.


Ninety Eight

Ninety Eight is a fairly simple drinking card game for two players using a

standard 52-card deck.


Ninety-Nine

Ninety-Nine is a card game that was developed in 1968 by David Parlett in

response to the need for a skilled but easily learnt plain-trick game for three

players. It was first published in 1975 and has since appeared in card-game

books in various countries including Germany, Hungary, Japan and Argentina.


Niobium

Niobium is a metal element with the symbol Nb.


Nisan

see "Abib"


Nitrate

A nitrate is any salt of nitric acid.


Nitric acid

Nitric acid (Aqua fortis) is produced by the oxidation of ammonia.


Nitro Keg

Nitro Keg is a strong copper-coloured dry ale from the Ash Vine brewery at

Frome in Somerset.


Nitro-glycerine

Nitro-glycerine is a powerful explosive produced from nitric acid and glycerol.


Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, gaseous element which

constitutes 78% of the atmosphere by volume, and occurs as a constituent of all

living tissues in combined form. It has the symbol N.


NLK

NLK is a light-hearted Hungarian card game which is best for about six players.


No*Stop Suprdupe

No*Stop Suprdupe by Nonstop Networks Limited, is a computer program that makes

two drives the same. It "synchronizes" them. It works with any two drives, so

long as the "target" is large enough to hold the data on the "source". It can

make a floppy disk look like a subdirectory of your hard disk, or make your

RAMdrive look like a subdirectory of your hard disk. Scrub a complex data

structure (such as a demo) from your hard disk. Dump important structures and

data to a removable device for backup and safekeeping. It can be used to copy

data only if the date/time, attributes or size are different.


Nobelium

Nobelium is a radioactive metal element with the symbol No.


Noble gases

In chemistry, the noble gases are a family of elements consisting of helium,

neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon.


Nocardia

Nocardia is a bacteria found in soil which causes nocardiosis.


NoiseKiller

NoiseKiller by Jean-Pierre Menicucci is a computer program to spin IDE drives

down when they are unused. The drives start spinning again as soon as they are

accessed.


Nonelectrolyte

In chemistry, a nonelectrolyte is a compound whose water solution does not

conduct an electric current.


Nones

In the Roman calendar, the nones were the fifth day of each month, excepting

March, May, July and October when the nones fell on the seventh day.


Noose

A noose is a loop with a running knot which tightens as the string is pulled.


Normal solution

In chemistry, a normal solution is a solution which contains 1 gram-equivalent

weight of a solute in 21 litres of solution.


Norse

The term Norse refers to ancient Norway.


North Star

The North Star (polestar) is a conspicuous star in the northern hemisphere,

located closest to the point toward which the axis of the earth is directed,

thus roughly marking the location of the north celestial pole. A polestar has

been used by navigators throughout recorded history for charting navigation

routes and is still used for determining true azimuth and astronomic latitude.

The positions of the celestial poles change as the earth's axis moves with the

earth's precessional motion, and as the north celestial pole assumes different

positions relative to the constellations, different stars become the North

Star. During the past 5000 years the line of direction of the North Pole has

moved from the star Thuban, or Alpha Draconis, in the constellation Draco, to

within one degree of the bright star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor,

which is now the North Star.


Nos

Nos is a Dutch domino game for three, four or five players played with a

double-six set of twenty-eight dominoes.


Nova

A nova is a faint star that suddenly erupts in brightness.


Novell Advanced NetWare

Advanced NetWare is a powerful LAN operating system package that lets you link

up to 100 PCs to a file server to share files and network resources such as

printers. With Advanced NetWare installed in an 80286 or better based PC, you

can achieve minicomputer-like performance while you continue to use your

PC-based applications. Advanced NetWare can be configured as either a dedicated

or non-dedicated system upon installation. Taking full advantage of the power

of the processor, this product uses up to 12Mb of RAM and more than 2Mb of hard

disk storage to support up to 100 users per server. Because it is fully

compatible with IBM's NetBIOS, it works with the many multi-user applications

available for the IBM Token-Ring and PC Network. Compatible with over 80

popular network hardware adapters and topologies, the package offers the utmost

in flexibility. For example, if the layout of your building requires multiple

cable-types, you could connect an ARCNET segment in one part of the building,

an Ethernet in another, and a Token-Ring somewhere else. If you already have a

non-Novell network installed, you can switch to Advanced or SFT NetWare and

take advantage of the package's sophisticated security, power, and flexibility.

Advanced NetWare provides operating system support for NetWare for Macintosh, a

VAP (Value Added Process), and offers transparent protocol connectivity between

IPX and Apple's AFP. Using NetWare for Macintosh and Novell NL1000 AppleTalk

network interface card, you can connect any AppleTalk network or network device

(such as Apple LaserWriters) to a Novell file server running NetWare version

2.15.


Novell ELS NetWare

Novell ELS NetWare Level I is Novell's Entry Level Solution non-dedicated

network operating system software for small workgroups or offices. Designed for

those who need the advantages of networking but who are afraid that network

installation is too complex. LAN operations such as file and resource sharing

are supported. Much less expensive and easier to install than Novell's other

LAN software, Novell ELS NetWare Level I is a non-dedicated LAN operating

system that supports up to four network users simultaneously. The package

includes many of the features of Novell's other LAN software, such as

menu-driven operation, print spooling, and a custom menuing program, and

supports up to five network server-attached printers. Novell ELS NetWare Level

II supports up to eight concurrent users. Unlike ELS NetWare Level I, it

includes many key features and network management tools of Novell Advanced

NetWare, such as resource accounting, system security, basic system fault

tolerance, and hardware independence. ELS NetWare Level II offers the choice of

dedicated or non-dedicated 80286 modes of operation. A read-after-write

verification is performed whenever data is written to the network hard disk

insuring that the data is re-readable. If the read-after-write verification

finds a faulty area of the hard disk, Hot Fix labels it as bad, lists it in the

bad block table, and automatically writes data to undamaged areas. ELS NetWare

Level II provides operating system support for NetWare for Macintosh, a VAP

(Value Added Process), and offers transparent protocol connectivity between IPX

Apple's AFF. Using NetWare for Macintosh and Novell NL1000 AppleTalk network

interface card, you can connect any AppleTalk network or network device (such

as Apple LaserWriters) to a Novell file server running NetWare version 2.15.


Nucleic acid

Nucleic acid is a complex organic acid forming the basis of heredity.


Nucleus

The nucleus is the positively charged central part of an atom.


Numismatics

Numismatics is the study of coins and medals.


Nyctophobia

see "Scotophobia"


Nylon

Nylon is a synthetic plastic similar in chemical structure to protein.


o-Toludine Hydrochloride

o-Toludine Hydrochloride is a crystalline, colourless to white sand like

material used to make various dyes and colours fast to acids.

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