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The S-band is the frequency band from 1550 to 5200 mhz employed in radar.


A sabot is a wooden shoe. They are worn in France and Holland where they are

made large enough to be lined with straw or hay.


Saccharin is an ortho sulpho benzimide used as a substitute for sugar.


Saccharose is a former alternative name for sucrose.


The sackbut is a musical instrument of the brass family.


SafeBoot by Fischer International Systems Limited is a computer product which

prevents a PC from being booted from a floppy disk, and prevents a hard disk

from being read in another computer.


Saffron is an orange-yellow dye extracted from the dried stigmas of a type of

crocus (Crocus sativus). It is used in cooking.


Safranines are red dye-stuffs obtained by the oxidation of a mixture of

paradiamine and a monoamine.


Sagittarius is a sign of the zodiac represented by a centaur armed with a bow

and arrow.

Sal Ammoniac

see "Ammonium Chloride"


Salicin is a colourless, bitter, odourless, crystalline substance obtained from

the bark of several species of tree of the willow and poplar class, and used in


Salicylic Acid

Salicylic acid (ortho-hydroxy-benzoic-acid) is the active chemical constituent

of aspirin. It is an aromatic acid obtained by treating with hydrochloric acid

the salt obtained by the action of carbon dioxide on sodium carbonate.


see "Salts"


Saltpetre is a popular name for potassium nitrate.


Salts are formed by the replacement of acidic hydrogen by a metal or radical by

the reaction of an acid upon an alkali.


Salvarsan is a poisonous yellowish powder discovered by Ehrlich and once used

in a dilute solution as a treatment for syphilis. It is an organic compound

containing a small amount of arsenic.


Samarium is an element with the symbol Sm.


Samba is a variation of Canasta. In some places it is known as Samba-Canasta;

one Dutch book also calls it Straat-Canasta (Sequence-Canasta).


Sand is small particles of mineral matter, usually quartz. The purest quartz

sands are white in colour and used for making glass. Other sands may be various

colours dependant upon the minerals they contain.


see "Suttee"


Satin is a fabric made from silk or similar yarn, with a glossy surface on one

side produced by a twill weave in which weft-threads are almost hidden by the


Saturated solution

In chemistry, a saturated solution is a solution that contains all the solute

that it can hold at a given temperature and pressure.


Saturday is the sixth day of the week.


A sauna is a steamy heat bath.


A savannah is an extensive tropical grassland.


The saxhorn is a musical instrument of the brass family. It evolved from the

bugle-horn, but has valves instead of keys. The name derives from it's

inventor, Adolphe Sax.


The saxophone is a metal musical instrument of the woodwind family.


Scandium is a metal element with the symbol Sc.


A scapulary is a kind of garment or portion of dress, consisting of two bands

of woollen stuff - one going down the breast and the other on the back, over

the shoulders - worn by a religieux. The original scapular was first introduced

by St Benedict, in lieu of a heavy cowl for the shoulders, designed to carry



Scapulomancy is divination by reading the cracks which appear in a scapula

(shoulder-blade) when it is roasted over an open fire. It was widely practised

in ancient Babylon.


see "Scarlet Fever"

Scarlet Fever

Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) is an infectious fever, characterised by a sore

throat, a red, diffuse eruption on the skin, followed by shedding of the

superficial part of the skin.


Scat (Ride the Bus) is a simple draw and discard card game, suitable for

players of all ages. Players have a three-card hand and the aim is to collect

cards in a single suit worth 31 points or as near as possible to that total. It

is played in the USA and the UK. In the USA it is usually called Scat or 31.

From 2 to 9 or more people can play and a standard 52-card deck is used. For

scoring hands, the ace is worth 11 points, the kings, queens, and jacks are

worth 10, and all other cards are worth their pip value. The value of a

three-card hand is calculated by adding up the value of the cards held in any

one suit. So if you have three cards of the same suit, you can add up all

three. If only two cards are in the same suit you can add those, or use the

value of the odd card if it is higher than the sum of the other two. If you

have three different suits the value of your hand is the value of the highest

card in it. The maximum hand value is 31, consisting of the ace and two

ten-point cards in the same suit.


Schafkopf is a point-trick card game, normally played with a German suited 32

card pack. As in several related games, the card values are ace=11, ten=10,

king=4, over=3, under=2, but Schafkopf has the special feature that the overs

and unders are permanent trumps, ranking above the ace. Schafkopf is considered

to be the national card game of Bavaria. It is also played, probably in several

different versions, in the south-east of Germany.


Schieberamsch is a point trick card game for three players. It occurs as a

variation within Skat, but also makes a good game in its own right. As it is

(mostly) a negative game, it looks like a cross between Skat and Hearts, but in

practice it feels significantly different from either. It is played with a

32-card pack is used, French or German suited, containing the cards AKQJT987

(AKOUT987) in each suit. If German suits are used the correspondence is

acorns=clubs, leaves=spades, hearts=hearts, bells=diamonds. The trump suit

consists of just the four jacks ranking in the order CJ (highest), SJ, HJ, DJ

(lowest). The remaining cards comprise 4 plain suits, in each of which the

cards rank A (highest), T, K, Q, 9, 8, 7 (lowest).


In biology, schizogony refers to a type of cell reproduction involving multiple

fission; the nucleus divides many times and the nuclei are separated into

daughter cells.


Schnapsen (Schnapser) is a popular Austrian two-hander card game. It is

essentially a tightened-up version of the classic German game Sechsundsechzig.

Other closely related games include Tausendeins (Austria), Tute (Spain),

Tyzicha Odin (Ukraine), and Snapszli (Hungary). Schnapsen is a point-trick game

of the Marriage group, and so the basic idea is to win points by capturing

valuable cards in tricks, and to make bonuses by melding marriages (matched

pairs of kings and queens). However, there are a few ideas that set Schnapsen

apart. The first is that the game is played at trick-and-draw with no

requirement to follow suit until the stock is closed, at which point the tricks

remaining in hand are played out strictly following suit. The second is that to

win a hand you need 66 card points, and the players are required to keep track

of their score in their heads - the use of a scoresheet is not allowed. If your

score reaches 66 and you neglect to announce the fact, then your opponent can

claim a win when they reach 66, irrespective of your score; also, if a player

claims 66 when they have not in fact made it, they pay a penalty. A game is

seven game points, and can be reached pretty quickly when penalties and bonuses

come into play. Finally, the pack is so short that there's no dead wood:

virtually every card counts and it can be agony trying to decide how to play

each one. The short pack also allows a pretty complete understanding of the lay

of the cards to build up quickly, and closing turns out to be the key element

of strategy. Very few games are played out to the end of the pack, and the

decision of when to close can be used as a blow to crush your opponent or as a

gamble to prevent them from presenting you with the same fate.


Schwimmen belongs to the Commerce group of card games, in which you improve

your hand by exchanging cards with a central pool of face-up cards. Other names

for the game are 31, Schnautz, Knack and Hosen 'runter (trousers down).

Although it is known in many parts of the world, it seems to be particularly

popular in Germany and the western part of Austria.


Sciatica is a pain of the sciatic nerve, often caused by exposure to cold or



Scintillation is a luminous effect produced when high-speed charged particles

(alpha and beta particles and protons) pass through matter.


Scoliosis is a curvature of the spine.


A scooter is a platform mounted on wheels with a steerable column. They

originally developed from roller skates, and were propelled by the rider.

During the beginning of the 20th century small engines started to be fitted,

followed by a saddle and the scooter developed into a form of motorcycle.


see "Scurvy"


Scorpio is a sign of the zodiac represented by a scorpion.


In psychiatry, scotomization is a defence mechanism in which a person develops

selective blind-spots to certain kinds of emotional or anxiety-producing

situations or conflicts.


Scrabble is a board game based upon a crossword puzzle.


Sculpture is the art of carving any substance into a designed form. The

material may be stone, clay, wood, ivory or metal, hand-wrought or cast in



The seam was a British measurement of glass equal to 120 lbs.


A searchlight is an instrument for directing a powerful beam of light. They are

constructed from an electric lamp and a concave mirror arranged so as to give a

cylindrical beam of light.


Sebar is a tradename for secobarbital.


The second is the basic SI unit of time, one-sixtieth of a minute. It is

defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 cycles of regulation (periods of the

radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the

ground state) of the caesium-133 isotope. In mathematics, the second is a unit

of angular measurement, equalling one-sixtieth of a minute, which in turn is

one-sixtieth of a degree.


A seed is the fertilised ovule in flowering plants. In addition to the embryo,

the seed usually contains a certain amount of albumin for its early nourishment.


The seer is a unit of measurement equivalent to 1 kilogram. It was extensively

used in India around 1900. The seer was a Sri Lankan unit of liquid measure

equal to 1.86 British pints.


A seiner is a ship which employs seine net fishing.


Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes.


Selenium is a rare metal element with the symbol Se. It was discovered in 1817

by Berzelius in the refuse of a sulphuric acid manufactory in Sweden.


Semaphore is a visual form of communication using flags.


A semiconductor is a material having electrical properties intermediate between

those of good electrical conductors and those of insulators.

Semipermeable membrane

In chemistry, a semipermeable membrane is a membrane that allows water and

crystalloids to pass through but holds back colloids.

Senile gangrene

see "Gangrene"


Senna is a purgative consisting of the leaves of the shrub Cassia actuifolia.


Seotal is a tradename for secobarbital.


Sepia is a dark brown pigment obtained from cuttlefish and used for monochrome


Sergeant Major

Sergeant Major is a trick taking card game for three players, using a standard

52-card deck. It is played clockwise.

The aim is to win as many tricks as possible. If a player succeeds in winning

12 or more tricks in one hand, the game ends and that player wins.

The first dealer is chosen at random. The cards are dealt singly, 16 to each

player. The last four are undealt cards are placed face down on the table to

form a kitty. The dealer names a suit as trumps (clubs, spades, hearts or

diamonds - no trump is not allowed), discards any four cards face down, and

takes the four undealt cards from the kitty in their place.

The player to dealer's left leads any card to the first trick. It is compulsory

to follow suit if able to; a player holding no card of the suit led may play

any card. Each trick is won by the highest trump it contains, or if there are

no trumps in it, by the highest card of the suit led. The winner of each trick

leads to the next.

Each player has a target. The dealer's target is 8 tricks; the player to

dealer's left has a target of 5 tricks; and the player to dealer's right needs

3 tricks. A player who won more tricks than the target is said to be up by the

number of tricks won in excess of target. A player who failed to reach the

target is down by the number of tricks short. The player(s) who are down pay

one stake per trick short of target, and the player(s) who are up receive one

stake per overtrick.

Sertaline hydrochloride

see "Zoloft"

Seven Wonders of the World

The Seven Wonders of the World were: the pyramids of ancient Egypt, the Hanging

Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, the tomb of Mausolus at

Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes, the statue of the creek god Zeus at

Olympia, and the Pharos at Alexandria (a lighthouse built by Ptolemy II).


Sevens (Parliament, Fan Tan or Card Dominoes) is a card game that involves

getting rid of all your cards by playing them to a layout. In the basic game

this layout starts with the 7 of each suit and grows outward towards the king

in one direction and the ace in the other. In France, the equivalent game is

called Domino. The layout can be started with a rank of the first player's

choice, and the other suits must then begin with the same rank (as in the

Domino contract of the game Barbu).


A sextant is a navigational instrument for determining latitude by measuring

the angle between a heavenly body and the horizon.


Shamanism is the religion of the Eskimos of north America and Siberia.


Shanghai is a card game. It is a variant of Rummy for three to five players

played with two 52-card decks shuffled together.


Sharia is the law of Islam.


A Shebeen is an unlicensed (illegal) Scottish drinking establishment. It was

defined by the Licensing (Scotland) Act, 1862, section 37 as meaning and

including a house, or other place in which spirits or other excisable liquors

are trafficked in by retail without a certificate and excise licence.


A Sheep-Dog is any breed of dog trained for controlling sheep, but in England

the term is usually restricted to the Old English Sheep Dog.


The sheepshank is a sailor's knot.

Sheffield Flood

The Sheffield Flood occured in 1864 when the Old Dale Dyke reservoir at

Bradfield burst, causing the death by drowning of 238 people.

Sheffield Plate

Sheffield Plate is the name given to articles made of copper plated with silver

by heat. It was invented in Sheffield in the middle of the 18th century.


Shellac is a resin used to make varnish. It is derived from the lac insect.


Sherlock by Gulf Sierra is a text comparison utility that allows you to

compares two ASCII files line by line. It displays five lines from each file in

separate windows. You may scroll either or both files passed the mismatch to

put them in sync and continue. Either file can be automatically scanned to

locate a line matching the line selected in the other file. Sherlock contains

features for searching, ignoring case, spaces, tabs, jumping around the files

and copying lines to a printer. This is a useful tool for programmers and



Shintoism is the primary religion in Japan.


A ship is a vessel intended for navigating the ocean, as distinct from a boat

which is any navigable vessel. The term ship now applies to sizeable boats

which are intended for distant voyages.


Ship-Money was a tax levied by Charles I in October 1634, ostensibly for the

equipment of ships for the defence of the coast and maintaining command of the

sea. The tax was deemed illegal and was a contributory dispute which led to the

English civil War.

Shire Moot

In Anglo-Saxon England a Shire Moot was a meeting of all the freemen of a shire

for transacting judicial and administrative matters pertaining to the shire.


Shoddy is wool obtained from woollen rags and wastes and respun.


Shorthand is a system of graphical notation making it possible to record speech

at greater speed than by normal writing. Early systems were developed by the

Greeks and Romans. Modern shorthand was first developed in England in 1588 by

Timothy Bright. Thomas Shelton developed a system employed by Samuel Pepys in

1630. The idea of using sound instead of an alphabet as the basis for a

shorthand system was introduced by William Tiffin in 1750. The Pitman system of

shorthand first appeared in 1837 and is widely used today, being quite capable

of 250 words a minute.


Shove-halfpenny is a game played on a marked board in which halfpennies or

discs are jerked from the edge along the board with the ball of the thumb. The

object is to lodge the coins within marked areas on the board. It was once a

popular game in English pubs.

Show Jumping

Show Jumping is an equestrian event in which horse and rider jump a set course

of fences specially designed and built for each contest.


Shuffle-board is a game played on a ship-deck in which wooden discs 6 inches in

diameter are shoved by a kind of cue into marked squares from a distance of

about 30 feet. The game has been recorded since the 15th century.

Sicilian Vespers

The Sicilian Vespers was the massacre of the French in Sicily on March 20th

1282. It was caused by a French soldier insulting a bride on her way to church,

and resulted in the entire garrison of Charles of Anjour being annihilated

within 3 days, putting an end to Angevin rule in Sicily.


A Sickle is a hook-shaped steel bladed instrument used for cutting grass and



SideKick by Borland International, is a popular and simple RAM-resident desktop

organiser consisting of five windows for a Notepad, Calculator, Calendar,

Dialer, and ASCII table. SideKick's Notepad is an ASCII text editor that

resembles WordStar. Although it is not a fully-fledged word processor, it is

remarkably complete. The ASCII table is a handy reference for programmers. The

Phone Dialer dials a phone number found anywhere on the screen - it doesn't

need to be in SideKick. The ASCII table, binary, and hexadecimal support in the

Calculator and the familiar WordStar interface in the Notepad, make SideKick

popular with programmers.


A sign is a mark drawn upon a surface.


A signet is a private seal used on documents and personal letters. The privy

signet is the personal seal of the British Sovereign used on private documents.


Sikhism is a religion founded by Nanak in the 15th century.


Silage is green fodder stored in a silo or pit without drying.

Sildenafil citrate

see "Viagra"


Silibrin is a tradename for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.


A silicate (sillic acid) is a compound formed by the combining of silica (SiO2)

and water in various proportions.


Silicon is a non-metallic element with the symbol Si.


Silk is a soft thread produced by the larvae of the silkworm moth.


Sill is a geological term for a sheet of igneous rock intruded into overlaying

beds and lying nearly horizontal over a large area.

Sillic Acid

see "Silicate"


A silo is a structure for storing and preserving vegetable matter in a green



The Silurian was the fifth geological period, 335,000,000 years ago. This

period marked the appearance of the first land plants.


Silver-steel is an alloy of one part silver and 500 parts Silver-steels first

made around 1822 and was adopted by the cutlers of Sheffield for making fine

razors, surgical instruments etc.


A simile is a literary device of description by comparison, as in 'he slept

like a log'.


Simony is the trafficking in spiritual things. It was an offence against the

canon law. The term derives from Simon Magus, who offered the apostles money

for the power to work miracles.


Sinapine is an organic base, existing as sulphocyanate in the seed of Sinapis

alba (white mustard), and first extracted by Henry and Garot in 1825.


Originally sine was another word to describe a gulf or a bay, as in 'The

Persian Sine', today its use is more limited to its trigonometry variation

which describes the straight line drawn from one extremity of an arc

perpendicular to the diameter passing through the other extremity.

Single Tax

The single tax was a system of taxation proposed by Harry George. It was

proposed that tax should be confined to land-rent, land being the real source

of wealth.


Single-stick was a game of cudgels, in which the competitor who first brought

blood from his opponent's head was the winner.

Sinn Fein

Sinn Fein is an Irish nationalist political party. It was founded in Dublin in

1900 by Arthur Griffith.


see "Sintering"


Sintering is the process of heating strongly a quantity of more or less

amorphous material, so causing it to coalesce into a single solid mass.


A siphon is a bent tube with one limb longer than the other, by means of which

a liquid can be drawn off to a lower level.


Sirius (the Dog Star) is the brightest star in the sky. It is in the

constellation of Canis Major and although only 2.5 times the mass of the sun

gives off 32 times as much light.


The sitar is an Indian musical instrument similar to the lute.


Sketch is a term used in art for a rapidly executed drawing serving as a study

for a finished picture or as a note to aid the memory.


A skiagraph is a photograph taken by means of X-rays.


A skiatron is a form of cathode-ray tube sometimes employed in radar. Its

screen is composed of pottasium chloride and is white in colour, but exhibits a

magenta trace of long persistence.

Skin Effect

In electronics, skin effect is the ac resistance of a conductor due to the

tendency for high-frequency currents to travel along the surface of the wire.


Skitgubbe Is a popular Swedish game for three players. In Norwegian it is

called Mattis.


Skittles (also called ninepins) is an ancient game played with nine large

wooden pins set up in a diamond formation, 3 pins to a side, and knocked down

with a thrown missile. Originally the missile was a flattened wooden article

weighing about 10 lbs and called a cheese. Today a wooden ball is rolled at the


Sky Sign

A Sky Sign was a device for advertisements attached to a support above a

building so as to be visible against the sky. They were outlawed in England in


Sky Writing

Sky writing is the tracing against the sky of an advertisement-word in smoke by

an aeroplane.


Skylab was an American space station launched in 1973.


Slag is the chemical compound resulting during the smelting of metallic ores.

It results because of the action of the flux on impurities in the ore.

Slaked Lime

Slaked Lime is a popular name for calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2. Which is obtained

by slaking calcium oxide. It is an important constituent of mortar and cement.


Slaking is a chemical term for mixing a substance with water, as in the process

of slaking lime to create slaked lime.

Slate Club

A Slate Club is a society whose members contribute small sums weekly or monthly

to a fund held by the secretary and shared out at Christmas or on some other

special occasion.


Slavery is the legal and economic status of being property. Slavery probably

originated in early agricultural societies. The slaves being recruited from

prisoners of war. In Greece and Rome slaves formed the economic basis of

society. From the 2nd century BC conquest flooded Rome with slaves, who in the

1st cent, AD outnumbered free men in Italy, and several slave revolts occurred.

The economic crisis of the 2nd century AD onwards led to alleviation of the

slaves' lot, and serfdom replaced slavery. It nevertheless died out slowly

surviving in England until the 11th century The colonisation of America led to

a revival of slavery in the 16th century and to the establishment of a traffic

in Negro slaves. Humanitarian agitation led to the abolition of the slave trade

in the British dominions in 1807 and of slave-holding itself in 1833. Leaders

of the anti-slavery movement were Oranville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson and

Wilberforce. In the USA the Civil War turned largely on slavery which was

declared illegal by Lincoln in 1865. Although officially abolished, slavery

tends to linger in remoter areas of Africa.

Sleepy Sickness

see "Encephalitis lethargica"

Slide Rule

A slide rule is a mathematical instrument used for rapid calculations including

multiplication, division, and the extraction of square-roots. They are now

almost extinct since the invention of the electronic calculator.


A sloop is a small vessel furnished with one mast and a fixed bowsprit. It is

fore and aft rigged, and usually carries a main-sail, fore-sail (jib-shaped), a

jib, and a gaff-sail. The sloop resembles the cutter, but the latter's

bow-sprit is not fixed.

Slot Machine

A Slot machine is a machine operated by coins, or in some cases by tokens

similar to coins, and used for selling commodities or services automatically.

Slot Machines originated with the Greeks and Romans for selling wine and are

still used today.


Slow-match was a 19th century term for a fuse used to light mines or blasts.


Sodium Laureth Sulfate


A smack is a small sailing or steam vessel employed for fishing and with a

large hold amidships to receive the catch.


Smalt is a type of glass in which protoxide of cobalt has been mixed with

common glass to produce a glass with a deep blue tinge to it. Smalt was

discovered by a Bohemian glass blower in the 16th century.

Smart Technology

Smart Technology are an English PC assembler and supplier based in Birmingham.

They were established in 1994 at the University of Birmingham Research Park and

supply a range of budget priced deskyop and laptop computers.

Smartcom II

Smartcom II by Hayes Microcomputer Products is a menu-driven communications

package which provides the ability to communicate with mainframe computers as

well as other PCs. The package was made to accompany the Hayes Smartmodem 1200

and 2100, so there are advantages in having the two together. When Smartcom II

is run, it checks the Smartmodem to see if the switches are set correctly - if

not it will tell you so. This is a unique feature for communications packages,

the others do not tell you that your modem switches are set incorrectly until

you are trying to communicate. Smartcom II has auto-dial and auto-answer

features as well as a directory service. The user has the capability to create

a macro command for each name listed in the directory so that you do not have

to key in simple log-in information. A limited number of other computers and

their numhers can be kept on the directory. For those users who send messages,

Smartcom II has a simple text editor which allows the user to write messages

from within the package instead of exiting to a DOS editor. Smartcom II gives

the user the ability to capture downloaded data to disk as it is sent, but only

as it comes across the screen. Smartcom II emulates the DEC VT100, VT102 and

VT52 terminals. Smartcom II makes communications easy by "holding your hand" as

the user specifies the commands. The menu system is good for the novice user

(but the advanced user may find it slow).

Smartcom III

Smartcom III was a major upgrade of the popular Smartcom II product. New

features included a powerful script programming language and the capability to

handle two online sessions more or less simultaneously. Smartcom III's script

language - SCOPE (Simple Communications Programming Environment) lets you

create simple log-in or file retrieval scripts that can handle entire sessions,

including reading and writing files. The dial session capability allows the

user to switch from one link to another with a single keystroke. Smarlcom III

has a built-in editor to help you create and modify scripts. For fast

execution, it also includes a compiler to convert the finished script to

machine code. The compiler also checks for syntax errors and if it finds any it

will return the script to the editor with appended error messages A Peruse

buffer allows access to information captured while the rest of it is still

being uploaded. File-compression and file-scrambling options provide data

security when communicating with another Smartcom III user. Smartcom III

emulates TTY, the DEC VT100, VT102 and VT52 and viewdata terminals.

SmarTerm 240

SmarTerm 240 by Persoft emulates DEC VT340, 240, 220, 125, 100, and 52

terminals on a PC. In addition to the features of the other SmarTerm

communications programs providing text terminal emulation, SmarTerm 240 can

emulate all features of DEC's ReGIS graphics language, and does Tektronix 4010

and 4014 emulation. The program supports a hotkey so you can toggle between the

emulation session and DOS.

SmarTerm 400

SmarTerm 400 by Persoft emulates the Data General Dasher 100, 200, 400, 410 or

411 terminals on a PC. The primary function of this program is ASCII or binary

file transfer between a PC and a host computer system. SmarTerm 400 makes use

of all the features of these terminals, including multiple display windows,

132-column support through horizontal scrolling or on-screen with supported

display adapters, full-character display attributes (underline, blink, dim,

reverse video), and local printer support including pass through mode, which

lets you send data directly to the printer rather than from the display.

SmarTerm 400 allows you to set customised softkey commands so that repetitive

functions can be mapped into a single keystroke.

SmartForecasts II

SmartForecasts II by Smart Software is a business forecasting computer program

that is easy to use without a knowledge of statistics. It quickly makes

accurate projections of sales, expenditures, market share, inventory levels,

and other items whose values are recorded periodically over time. As a business

forecasting product, SmartForecasts II provides more realistic information than

you would receive by adding 5% to the most recent figures in a spreadsheet.

Most business forecasting is done by managers and analysts who may not be

familiar with the statistical and mathematical reasoning behind forecasting but

do know a great deal about products, competition, and markets. SmartForecasts

II is designed to fully utilise the special knowledge and business judgment of

the user. Its exceptional ease of use makes it appropriate for novices, while

the variety of methods available appeal to the experienced analyst. One of the

strongest features of SmartForecasts II is Automatic Forecasting, which runs an

internal check among the available forecasting techniques to determine which

one best forecasts your data series. Using a process that is transparent to the

user, Automatic Forecasting displays results in a graph showing historical

data, smoothed historical data, forecasts, and upper/lower margins of error

based on the winning method. It also produces tabular results. Forecasting can

be done simultaneously on a single business variable or a group of up to 60

related variables (up to 150 data points or observations per variable), such as

the sales of items in the same product line. SmartForecasts II's unique Eyeball

Forecasting lets you adjust any forecast, including automatic forecasts, to

reflect business judgment or new market information. It lets you use

interactive graphics to quickly draw and adjust forecasts on-screen.

SmartForecasts II consists of four menu-driven modes; an edit mode for

creating, editing, and transferring data; an explore mode for statistical

sis and graphing of data; a forecast mode; and an on-line help mode.

SmartForm Assistant

SmartForm Assistant by Claris Corporation is a companion program to SmartForm

Designer and provides help messages and automatic calculations. Using the

Assistant, you can access built-in help messages, choice lists, and automatic

calculated fields that were created with the Designer. The Assistant lets you

fill in forms more quickly and accurately than manually.

SmartForm Designer

SmartForm Designer by Claris Corporation is an advanced computer tool designed

to create professional-quality forms quickly. It creates simple or complex

forms such as mailing labels, tickets, expense reports, and invoices. The

Designer can create forms with calculated fields, built-in choice fields, and

data-entry validation rules. Forms that are created with this product can be

printed for manual completion or distributed electronically for on-line

completion with SmartForm Assistant.


SmartNotes by Personics Corporation is the electronic version of those little

yellow sticky notes attached to many paper documents. SmartNotes attaches a

note to a phrase in any document, cell in any spreadsheet, or field in any

database and can be used to clarify a figure, comment on the wording of a

phrase, or remind yourself to check an address in a data file. When pressing a

key, a blank note pops up and attaches itself to a selected cell, field, or

phrase. You can display all notes associated with a given screen, or scroll

through the document to display all notes. The core of SmartNotes is a very

fast pattern-matching technique. Because notes are kept in a separate file,

there is no alteration or corruption of original data file.

SmartWare II

SmartWare II, by Informix Software, is the updated version of the Smart

Software System. It consists of four modules: database, spreadsheet with

graphics, word processor, and communications. Each of the modules is powerful

enough to be compared to a standalone product in its category. SmartWare II

offers a complete selection of powerful features to facilitate the building of

complex custom applications and programs. It has been used extensively in

companies that develop internal turnkey systems. The package provides Project

Processing and a built-in application language with all four modules. Project

Processing gives you access to all the SmartWare II commands, as well as over

75 programming commands, and supports programming structures such as IF-ELSE,

FOR, and WHILE. You can also define your own functions with Project Processing.

The SmartWare II database more closely resembles a standalone database than any

of the other integrated programs. The size of the database is determined by the

amount of disk space because SmartWare II writes data to disk as RAM becomes

limited. There is a report generator which allows combination of data from up

to 100 files in one report and you can design custom data screens that display

information from as many as 127 files on one screen. The Query-by-Example

feature helps to quickly find specific data simply by selecting a sample of the

type of data to extract.


A snaffle is a type of bridle bit, composed of two bars jointed together in the

middle, with rings at the ends for reins.


Snobol is a high-level text-handling computer programming language.


Snooker is a game derived from billiards.


Snow is the crystalline form of frozen water vapour.


Snuff is powdered tobacco which is then inhaled through the nostrils. It was

popular during the 18th century. The art of taking snuff gracefully was one of

the accomplishments indispensable to gentlemen.


Soap is made by decomposing natural fats in a caustic alkali solution.


Socialism is an economic theory based upon the public ownership of the means of

production. The term was first coined in England by Robert Owen


Sociology is the comprehensive study of the fundamental laws of social

phenomena, or if you like, the science of man in society. The term sociology

was first introduced by Comte in 1839.


Soda is a common name for sodium carbonate (Na2CO3).

Soda ash

see "Sodium carbonate"

Soda Water

see "Aerated water"


Sodagrain is a tradename for caustic soda.


Sodium is a metal element with the symbol Na.

Sodium amide

Sodium amide is a white, crystalline, water-soluble flammable powder used in

the manufacture of sodium cyanide and in organic synthesis.

Sodium arsenite

Sodium arsenite is a white or greyish-white, water-soluble, poisonous powder

used as a weed-killer and as an insecticide.

Sodium benzoate

Sodium benzoate (benzoate of soda) is a white crystalline soluble compound used

as an antibacterial and antifungal agent in preserving food, as an antiseptic,

and in making dyes and pharmaceuticals. It has the formula Na(C6H5COO).

Sodium Bisulphite

Sodium Bisulphite is a salt of Sulphurous Acid.

Sodium Carbonate

Sodium carbonate (soda ash) is an anhydrous, greyish-white, odourless,

water-soluble powder. It is used in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, soap,

paper, petroleum products.

Sodium chlorate

Sodium chlorate is a colourless crystalline soluble compound used as a

bleaching agent, weak antiseptic, and weedkiller. It has the formula NaClO3.

Sodium cyanide

Sodium cyanide is a white, crystalline, deliquescent powder. It is soluble in

water and very poisonous. It is prepared by heating sodium amide with charcoal

and is used in casehardening alloys and electroplating.

Sodium dichromate

Sodium dichromate is a soluble crystalline solid compound, usually obtained as

red or orange crystals and used as an oxidising agent, corrosion inhibitor, and

mordant. It has the formula Na2Cr2O7.

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

see "Sodium Laureth Sulfate"

Sodium fluoracetate

Sodium fluoroacetate is a white crystalline odourless poisonous compound, used

as a rodenticide.

Sodium fluoride

Sodium fluoride is a colourless, crystalline, water-soluble poisonous substance

used as an insecticide, rodenticide and also as a source of fluoride in

toothpaste and added to water in many developed countries.

Sodium Hydrate

Sodium Hydrate (caustic soda) is a white, opaque, brittle substance with a

fibrous texture. It readily dissolves in water and was formerly used in the

manufacture of soap.

Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide is a brittle, white deliquescent solid with a soapy feel. It

dissolves in water to give a strongly alkaline solution and is widely used in

the manufacture of soaps, detergents, cellulose and rayon.

Sodium Iodide

Sodium iodide is a salt found in kemp. It forms anhydrous cube crystals which

are very soluble in water and alcohol.

Sodium Laureth Sulfate

Sodium Laureth Sulfate (Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium lauryl sulfate, SLS) is

an inexpensive detergent commonly used in cosmetic cleansers, hair shampoos,

bath and shower gels, bubble baths, engine degreasers, toothpaste, and car

washes. It is very corrosive and readily attacks greasy surfaces. It is used

throughout the world for clinical testing as a primary skin irritant.

Laboratories use it to irritate skin on test animals and humans so that they

may then test healing agents to see how effective they are on the irritated

skin. A recent study at the University of Georgia Medical College, indicated

that it penetrated into the eyes as well as brain, heart, liver, and other

organs and showed long-term retention in the tissues. The study also indicated

that it prevented young children's eyes from developing properly and caused

cataracts to develop in adults. It may also cause hair loss by attacking the

follicle. In the USA it is classified as a drug in bubble baths because it eats

away the skin protection and causes rashes and infection to occur. It is

potentially harmful to both the skin and hair because it cleans by corrosion.

It dries the skin by stripping away the protective lipids from the surface so

it can't effectively regulate moisture. It is also a lung and eye irritant and

is considered a reproductive hazard. Another extremely serious problem is the

connection of SLS with nitrate contamination. SLS reacts with many types of

ingredients used in skin products and forms nitrosomines (nitrates). Nitrates

are potential cancer-causing carcinogenics.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

Sodium Laureth Sulfate

Sodium Nitrate

Sodium Nitrate is the deliquescent salt (NaNO3) occurring naturally as caliche,

or made by the reaction of nitric acid and soda ash. It is used as a fertiliser

and in the manufacture of explosives and as a preservative in foods.

Sodium perborate

Sodium perborate is a white odourless crystalline compound used as an

antiseptic and deodorant.

Sodium peroxide

Sodium peroxide is a yellowish-white odourless soluble powder formed when

sodium reacts with an excess of oxygen. It is used as an oxidising agent in

chemical preparations, a bleaching agent, an antiseptic, and in removing carbon

dioxide from air in submarines.

Sodium Stearate

Sodium stearate is used as the basis of soap and detergents and is used in the

manufacture of toothpaste.

Sodium Sulphite

Sodium Sulphite is a salt of Sulphurous Acid. It has the formulae Na2SO37H2O.

Sodium thiosulphate

Sodium thiosulphate (hypo) is a white, crystalline, water-soluble substance

used in photography as a fixing agent.

Softerm PC

Softerm PC is a powerful communications manager and terminal emulation program.

It emulates more than 40 popular terminals and communicates to a variety of

host computers and information services. In terminal-emulation mode, Softerm PC

provides all keyboard and display functions. It can capture data to disk or

print in transparent mode, which captures all data received, or line mode,

which captures each line on the screen after it is displayed. Send-file

function transmits data from disk as if it were typed on the keyboard. Softerm

PC offers various remote file transfer modes, including a character protocol

which provides maximum flexibility for text file transfers. Streaming and

block-modes are supported. Transmit options include fixed or variable block

size, end-of-block terminator, acknowledgment of character strings,

end-of-block delay and character echo wait. Softerm PC supports the concurrent

operation of up to four communications ports and three printer ports through

background processing queues. Speeds up to 115K bps are supported, with PCs

connected locally or remotely through standard manual or autodial modems.

Softerm PC is written in assembly language for fast response and efficient

operation. Softerm PC includes disk and file utilities to display, print, or

copy any file. The product supports automatic dialing in terminal and file

transfer modes. A built-in phone book allows numbers to be accessed by

user-defined names. Keyboard macros can be defined to send frequently used

sequences of characters. You can toggle between Softerm PC and another

application, such as Lotus 1-2-3.


Soil is a loose covering of broken rocky material and decaying organic matter.


Soke is a term used in the Domesday Book for the right to hold a court and

exercise jurisdiction.


Sol-fa is a system of musical notation which was founded by Miss Glover and

John Curwen.

Solfoton Tedral

see "Phenobarbital"


A solid is a substance in which the molecules do not have free movement.


Solitaire is a game played by one person on a board with 33 small indentations,

in which 32 marbles are placed. The object is to remove by 'jumping' all the

marbles except one.

Solo Whist

Solo Whist is a card game, a modification of the American game of Boston. It is

played by four individual players, who may form temporary partnerships, with a

full pack of fifty-two cards. It was brought to London around 1852.


A solstice is a point on the ecliptic midway between the equinoxes, where the

sun, reversing its motion in declination, seems to stand still.


In chemistry, a solute is a substance dissolved in a solvent.


A solution is a homogeneous mixture of substances that cannot be separated by

mechanical means.


In chemistry, a solvent is a substance in which a solute is dissolved.


A sombrero is a felt hat with a very broad brim widely used through Spanish

America and the southern USA.


Sonar is a method of locating underwater objects by the reflection of

ultrasonic waves.


Sonata is an important form of musical composition comprising classically four

movements. The modern form of sonata was fixed by Emanual Bach in the 18th



Sonimen is a tradename for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.


A sonnet is a 14 line poem devoted to a single theme.


Soot is a black carbonaceous solid deposited as a result of the imperfect

combustion of bituminous coal, wood, oil or other substances. It is primarily

carbon, but also contains some hydrocarbons and may contain ammonium sulphate

if derived from coal.


A Sophist was a class of teacher of rhetoric and the art of conduct, in ancient



see "Methaqualone"


Soprano is the highest of the singing voices. In adults it is only possessed by


Sorbic acid

Sorbic acid is found in the fruit of the rowan tree and used in food



The Sorbonne is a French educational institution in Paris. It was founded in

1253 by Robert de Sorbon as a society of clergy for study in theology.


Sordes are crusts which form on the lips of sick persons suffering from extreme

exhaustion. They are especially associated with typhoid.

Sortes Virgilianae

Sortes Virgilianae or the Virgillian Oracle was a form of divination which

consisted in opening a particular book at random, and regarding as a prophecy

the lines on which the eye first fell or on which the finger happened to be



Sotheby's is an art salesroom in London. It was established in 1744 by Samuel

Baker, who specialised in the auctioning of rare books and manuscripts.


Sound is the changes in air pressure detectable by the ear.


Sounding is a method of ascertaining from a ship the depth of water beneath it.

South Sea Bubble

The South Sea Bubble was an English scheme for liquidating the National Debt in

the 18th century. In 1711 the South Sea Company was incorporated which in

return for a monopoly of trade to Spanish America took over the floating

National Debt. The public, encouraged by the government bought 100 pound shares

in the company which quickly rose to 1000 pounds in value. Then in 1720 the

company crashed and there was widespread ruin. In the ensuing inquiry the

government was found guilty and Walpole attained power and restored the

country's credit, and the South Sea Company henceforth conducted legitimate



Soviet is a Russian word meaning 'council' and a system adopted by the Russians

where by organised industries and not localities are the unit of representation

and delegation. The Soviets were elected councils, anyone over the age of 18

able to vote so long as they were a worker, or looked after a worker, or were a

former worker etc., thus excluding people who lived by exploiting others. The

system was effectively spoiled by Stalin and eventually was broken in the 1990s

by corruption and greed.


A spacecraft is a vehicle used to travel through space, from one planet to

another or to a moon, asteroid or other planetoid.


Spacewar is a space-combat simulation game, inspired by E. E. "Doc" Smith's

"Lensman" books, in which two spaceships duel around a central sun, shooting

torpedoes at each other and jumping through hyperspace. The game was first

implemented on the PDP-1 at MIT in 1960. SPACEWAR aficionados formed the core

of the early hacker culture at MIT. Nine years later, a descendant of the game

motivated Ken Thompson to build, in his spare time on a scavenged PDP-7, the

operating system that became UNIX. Less than nine years after that, SPACEWAR

was commercialise as one of the first video games.


A span is a natural unit of measurement, half a cubit, and measured from the

tip of the thumb to the little finger and generally reckoned in England as nine


Special Branch

see "C.I.D."


Species is a biological term for related individuals with very similar general


Specific gravity

In chemistry, specific gravity (or relative density) is the ratio of the weight

of a given volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water.

Specific Heat

The specific heat of a material is defined as the amount of heat that is

required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the material by 1 degree of the

centigrade scale. As the specific heat varies with the temperature of the

substance it is usual to specify the temperatures between which it has been

measured, although for temperatures met with in nature the variation of

specific heat is negligible. Specific heats are all measured in relation to

that of water, and by definition the specific heat of water is unity.


The spectroheliograph is an instrument devised in 1889 by Hale at Chicago for

the purpose of photographing solar prominences. It is essentially a

spectroscope with a double slit (as sugested by Janssen in 1869), the second

slit serving to exclude from the sensitive plate immediately behind it all

light except that of one selected quality, usually the K-line of calcium. By

giving properly adjusted movements to the several parts of the apparatus, a

picture of the object in mono-chromatic light can thus be built up in sections

as its image drifts across the collimator slit.


A spectroscope is a mechanical device for analysing light. They are used for

such things as measuring the velocity of stars, looking at the rotation of the

sun and the detection of chemical elements.

Speculum Metal

Speculum metal is an alloy of two parts copper to one part tin and a trace of

arsenic. It is hard, white and brittle and can be highly polished. It was once

used for making the mirrors of reflecting telescopes.


Speed is the rate of time at which something moves, travels, proceeds or



SpeedBack by MicroTools Inc. is a fast and user friendly disk defragmenter for

the PC. Using a special algorithm to minimize movement of data, files are moved

to the front of the disk and placed in contiguous clusters.


see "Tachometer"


Spelter is an alloy of copper and zinc in equal parts used for hard soldering

and brazing. The term is also applied to zinc ingots formed by smelting.


Spermaceti is a solid wax separated on cooling the head oil of the sperm whale.

It consists mainly of cetyl palmitate and was formerly used in the manufacture

of candles and ointments.


Spiegel-eisen (Mirror-Iron) is a pig-iron containing about 10 to 40 percent

Manganese and 5 percent carbon. It is prepared by smelting manganiferous iron

ores in a blast furnace. When broken it forms large crystalline plates of a

very lustrous appearance, hence the name mirror-iron. It is used to add to the

molten pure iron of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes in order to obtain


Spindle file

A spindle file is a device for holding bills, invoices, memos and other

paperwork. It consists of a metal spike, sometimes bent, projecting out of a

base. The papers are then impaled upon the spike.


A spinet (virginal) is a keyed musical instrument of the harpsichord type, but

with only one string to a note and therefore less volume. It is generally

square in shape and the strings are plucked. Spinets were popular between 1500

and 1760 especially during the reign of Elizabeth I in England.


Spinning is the process of twisting textile fibres into thread, so as to give

them strength. The grip of the individual fibres prevents their sliding over

one another.


The spinthariscope was an instrument contrived by William Crookes in 1903 to

show the luminous effets due to radium. It consisted of a short brass tube

closed at one end by a convex lens, and at the other by a zinc sulphide screen,

with a small piece of radium salt placed close in front of it. Am observer

looking at the screen through the lens, saw it lit up by dazzling

seintillations, each of which marked the impact of an alpha particle hurled

from the disintegrating radium.

Spirits of Hartshorn

see "Ammonia"

Spirits of salt

Spirits of salt is an old popular name for hydrochloric acid.

Spite and Malice

Spite and Malice is a kind of competitive patience (solitaire) card game for

two players. It is also known as Cat and Mouse. Both players try to be the

first to get rid of a pile of "pay-off cards" by playing them to centre stacks

which are begun with an ace and continue in upward sequence to a king. This is

not a physical race (as in Spit or Racing Demon where play is simultaneous) -

in Spite and Malice the players take turns.

Spontaneous combustion

In chemistry, spontaneous combustion is the ignition of a substance as the

result of the accumulated heat of slow oxidation.


A spoon is a shallow bowl with a handle, used for measuring or conveying food

or drink to the mouth. Early spoons were made of wood, ivory, bronze and

silver. In England wood and ivory were the predominant materials until the 15th

century when they were replaced by metal.

Sporting Times

The Sporting Times is a newspaper founded in 1865 and almost entirely devoted

to horse-racing.


A spring is a device for linking two objects together so as to allow of

relative displacement between them, this being resisted by a force which

increases as the displacement becomes greater.


Spurs are instruments with serrated edges or spikes attached to the heels of

horsemen and used for goading the horse to greater speed. In chivalry the

phrase 'winning his spurs' was equivalent to qualifying as a knight. A knight's

spurs were gold and a squire's silver.


SQL stands for Structured Query Language. Often referred to as Sequel for

short, SQL was developed as a query language to access mainframe databases such

as IBM's DB2. PC products that incorporate SQL are IBM's OS/2 Extended Edition,

dBASE IV, SQL Server from Ashton-Tate and Microsoft, Paradox, DataEASE (using a

modified form called DQL), PC/FOCUS, and many others. PC implementations of SQL

fall into, two categories. Firstly, SQL commands can be written directly by

programmers and experienced users to access databases. The second

implementation recognises that most PC users are not programmers and do not

want to learn SQL and so provides them with their normal friendly user

interface. The underlying software then writes the SQL commands directly for

them, which are used to query SQl server databases. Anonther benefit of SQL is

that it will provide a common programming language for different machine

architectures, i.e. code written on an IBM mainframe can be moved to a PC with

less rewriting than with conventional languages. A full implementation of SQL

also contains a very critical component for creating robust transnctional

databases. Often referred to as ROLL RACK/COMMIT, the facility allows a

transaction that was interrupted half way through updating multiple files to be

rolled back, thereby preventing damage to the datafiles. Many PC

implementations of SQL are subsets of the ANSI standard, and some include

extensions to the ANS standard.

SQL Server

SQL Server provides a fast, transaction-oriented server for database requests

sent from client programs across a LAN. SQL Server was developed by Sybase,

Microsoft, and Ashton-Tate. It is an enhanced version of the popular Sybase SQL

Server product that has been available on Minicomputers for the past few years.

This minicomputer origin makes the system fast, secure, robust, and able to

provide a high throughput of transactions. With most multi-user database

managers, the file server needs to send entire copies of index files and

database files down the LAN. It is a tribute to the high performance of modern

networks that the performance of these DBMS is adequate. Systems based on SQL

Server promise to change this. The database server handles high-level requests

using SQL. Client programs send database queries to the server, which then

processes the request locally, sending back only the data required by the

client. This reduces the network traffic immensely: instead of several

megabytes worth of index information, only a few kilobytes of data need be

exchanged. SQL Server uses the OS/2 LAN Manager Named Pipes protocol to

exchange data between clients and the server. This protocol is straight forward

for application programmers to use, and the system includes C libraries and

full documentation for developers to write their own client interfaces to the

server. OS/2 provides two distinct methods for programs to run simultaneously.

Processes are usually used for running distinct programs, and occupy a large

system overhead as they can theoretically write to their own virtual screen.

Threads are "quick and dirty", and simply inherit most of the context of their

owner. SQL Server uses threads, which means that the transaction throughput of

an 80386 PC is generally better than that of a low-end VAX minicomputer.

Centralising data access using a database server also improves security.

Conventional shared databases offer little, if any, security - both against


accidental loss of data. To use the SQL Server, each client must provide a

valid user name and password when first setting up the connection. Security

levels can be assigned to deny access on a field by field basis within tables

in a database. Users can also be granted read but not write access, and write

but not read access. SQL Server uses the features of the TRANSACT SQL language

to support full transactional processing. This ensures that the database will

always retain self consistency and integrity. Should the server or LAN fail

during a database update, the next time SQL Server is started it will "roll

back" the transactions that were in process, and restore the database to its

original state prior to the failure.


A squall is a sudden strong gust of wind, which may rise for a few seconds to

hurricane force.


SQWEZ by JM Software is an easy to use multi-file compression package that

outputs a self expanding program. File overwrite and CRC data checks are used

to help assure quality data compression and decompression. Ideal for software

authors to package their program files for distribution.

St Edward's Crown

St Edward's Crown is the crown worn by English kings at their coronation, and

was first worn by Charles II. It is part of the British Crown Jewels.

St Louis Cardinals

see "Chicago Cardinals"

St. James' Gazette

St James' Gazette was an anti-radical evening newspaper first published in May

1880 at a price of 2d. In January 1882 the price was dropped to 1d and in 1905

it amalgamated with the Evening Standard.


Stadium was a Greek measure of length equal to 600 Greek feet. The foot race at

the Olympic games was a stadium in length and the word has thus become to mean

any permanent arena for sports and games.


A stalactite is a mass of calcareous matter hanging in caves, formed by the

filtration of water containing calcium bicarbonate in solution through holes or

pores in the cave roof. the evaporation of the water and carbonic acid gas

leaves behind it a deposit of limestone which continues to increase in size so

long as the water drops.


A stalagmite is similar to a stalactite, but grows upwards from the cave floor,

usually below a stalactite.

Stamp Act

The Stamp Act was passed by Lord Rockingham's Government on March 22nd 1765. It

formed part of Grenville's scheme for the taxation of the Colonies, requiring

all deeds, receipts for money etc. to be written on stamped paper, the receipts

going to revenue. It was one of the chief causes of the American War of

Independence, the American Colonies highly resenting taxation without

representation. It was repealed on March 18th 1766.


A star is a luminous globe of gas producing light by nuclear reactions.

Star Chamber

The Star Chamber was an English court founded in 1487 by Henry VII to punish

the misdemeanours of sheriffs and juries, and all illegal assemblies and

disturbances. It had jurisdiction over all cases civil and criminal except

capital offences. Howevere, under Laud it was miss used and torture was

regularly used to obtain confessions. The Star Chamber was abolished in 1641.

Star of Africa Diamond

The Star of Africa diamond was an enormous diamond. It was cut up and parts of

it are mounted in the British Crown Jewels

Star Trek

Star Trek was an American science fiction drama series created by Gene

Roddenberry during the late 1960s. It was intended to be a 'Western set in

space' and won acclaim for its controversial casting of a black actress in a

senior crew position, and the casting of a multi-national crew. It also

featured the first multi-racial kiss on American television - between a black

lady and a white man.


Starboard is the right-hand side of a vessel facing the bows and the opposite

of port.


Starch is a carbohydrate stored in plants, and is comprised of a large numbers

of glucose molecules combined.

Stark Effect

The Stark Effect is the change produced by a strong electrostatic field in the

spectrum emitted by a gas subjected to an electric discharge in a highly

exhausted tube. The light emitted by the atoms of the gas is due to the motion

of electrons and the motion of these is disturbed when they are subjected

either to a magnetic field or to an electric field, the former case being that

of the Zeeman effect. The Stark effect was discovered in 1913 by Stark.


A state is an independent body of persons united in a political society for the

purpose of resisting external aggression and maintaining internal order. The

functions which distinguish a State from any other community, e.g. a Church,

are thus the external and internal use of force; and these two uses of force,

though essentially the same, may be distinguished as extrajudicial and judicial.

State Crown

The State Crown is a part of the British Crown Jewels. It was made for Queen



The State-General was an assembly of nobles, clergy and commoners of France.

The first was convoked by Philip the Fair in 1302 and the last by Louis XVI in

1789; this transformed itself into the revolutionary National Assembly.


Statics is the branch of dynamics dealing with states of balance in which no

motion occurs because the forces tending to produce it are so arranged that

their effects neutralise each other.

Stationers' Company

The Stationers' Company was chartered in 1556 and was for many years the

licensing body of all printers and books published in Britain, handling

censorship. The Copyright Act of 1842 removed the licensing powers and provided

for literary copyrights.


Statistics is the study of numerical data, their classification and analysis.

It embraces every department of activity and knowledge to which numerical

comparison can be applied, but properly applies to social facts, and its

greatest use is in economics and public administration.


A stator is an assembly of fixed plates in a variable capacitor.

Statute Merchant

A statute merchant was an undertaking, signed in the presence of the mayor and

sealed with the King's seal, by a debtor to pay a merchant his debt on a

specified date. Statue merchants were established by the Statutes of Merchants

of 1286 and 1288.

Statute of Drogheda

see "Poynings' Law"

Statute of the Staple

The Statute of the Staple was enacted in 1354 and decreed that the sale of

wool, leather, woolfells and lead made in England should be held at certain

staple towns.

Statutory Order

A Statutory Order is a rule made by virtue of some Act of Parliament giving

them power to do so, by the Crown in Council, the Courts of Justice, or

Government Departments, and having the same authority as the statutes under

which they are made. They usually deal with details of administration left

unprovided for in the enabling statute, and generally must be submitted to

Parliament before coming into force.


Steam is the transparent, colourless gas into which water is converted when it


Steam Engine

The first workable steam engine was built by Thomas Savery who exhibited a

model of it at the Royal Institution in London in 1698. But Dionysius Papin had

published a design for a high-pressure steam engine in 1690, and it is probable

that Savery took the plan from him.

Steam Hammer

A steam hammer is a power-driven hammer invented around 1842 by James Nasmyth.

As originally designed, the striker of the hammer was attached to the lower end

of the piston rod of an inverted cylinder and the instrument was worked by

steam controlled by a valve.

Steam Shovel

A steam-shovel or steam-navvy was a machine for excavating earthworks. It

consisted of a bucket on a long arm with an engine for articulating the bucket

which was used to scoop out large quanitites of earth.


see "Steam Shovel"

Stearic Acid

Stearic acid is a long chain fatty acid soluble in alcohol but not water. Mixed

with rubber in a small proportion, it is a very valuable softener and activates

many vulcanisation accelerators.


Stearin or glycerol tri-stearate, is along with glycerol tri-palmitate, the

main component of the solid fats. In its pure state it forms pearly crystals,

which are tasteless, and insoluble in water, but dissolve in ether and similar



Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.


A steeple is any tower-like structure attached to a church, whether a tower

proper or spire or a combination of tower and spire or tower and lantern.

Steinway and Sons

Steinway and Sons are an American firm of piano makers. They were founded in

1853 at New York by Henry Steinway and his sons: Charles, Henry, William and

Albert. They were joined in 1865 by the eldest son, Theodore. The Steinways

were natives of Brunswick, but emigrated to the USA in 1849.


Stelazine is a tradename for trifluoperazine hydrochloride.


A stencil is a thin metal plate or other piece of material with a series of

holes forming a design or lettering through which colouring-matter is applied

to a surface.


A stenotype is a small, light easily portable machine somewhat resembling a

typewriter used for stenotypy. The speed attainable with the machine far

exceeds that possible in any of the written systems of shorthand.


Stenotypy is a method of using a printer instead of a written character for

recording shorthand, effected by a small, light and easily portable machine

called a stenotype.


The stephanome was an instrument invented by Professor Tait and used at the Ben

Nevis observatory for measuring the angular size of halos, glories, fogbows

etc. It consisted of a graduated rod with a sight at one end, and a sliding bar

with an outer and inner pair of points. In practice the eye was applied to the

sight and the sliding bar moved along the graduated rod until either the outer

or inner pair of points on it coincided with the ends of a diamiter of the

circle being measured. The graduations on the rod were reduced to angular

measure and tabulated, measurements being made to an average accuracy of about

five minutes of arc.


Stere is a French unit for solid measure, equal to a cubic metre or kilolitre.


Stereo-chemistry is the science of the study of the spatial configuration of

the atoms and groups constituting the molecule in chemical compounds. The

foundations of stereo-chemistry were laid by the work of Louis Pasteur on

tartaric acid in 1850.


A stereoscope is an optical instrument producing an impression of depth or

solidity. As early as the 1930s the technique of 3-D films shown to an audience

wearing stereoscopes of a red glass filter for one eye and a green glass filter

for the other eye were common in Britain.

Sterling silver

Sterling silver is an alloy of silver and copper.


Stilts are poles with stirrup-like projections for the feet placed at some

distance from the bottom and used for walking over rough ground. They were used

for crossing rivers, scaling castle walls and as a diversion.


Stipple is an engraving style producing the desired effect by means of dots, in

contradistinction to engraving in lines.


In botany, a stipule is a small leaf-like appendage to a leaf, commonly

situated at the base of the petiole in pairs, one on each side, and either

adhering to it or standing separate. They are usually of a more delicate

texture than the leaf, but vary in this respect as well as in form and colour.

They are not found in all plants, but where they occur they frequently

characterise a whole family, as in Leguminosae, Rosaceae and others.

Stock Exchange

The Stock Exchange is a market for dealing in shares, stocks, bonds and other

securities existing in most important financial centres of the world. In most

cases Stock Exchanges have developed from informal meetings of 18th century

commission agents and brokers.


Stocks are two boards with semi-circular holes, set one above the other within

two posts, and padlocked so as to confine the legs of a seated person just

above the feet. Formerly every parish had stocks fixed in some public spot in

which petty offenders were confined as punishment.

Stocks and Shares

Stock is the capital of a company, divided into shares of a given amount which

are transferable. Stock is always paid up, shares need not be, but shares

cannot be divided into parts.


Stoicism is an ancient Greek philosophy. It is essentially a practical

philosophy, the source of its ethics being the ideal of the wise man after the

pattern of Socrates, who perceives that the true good of man lies not in

outward objects, but in the state of the soul itself. A follower of Stoicism is

known as a Stoic.


A stole is a strip of silken material worn over both shoulders by priests and

bishops, but over the left shoulder only by deacons, in their administrations.

The council of Laodicea forbade the use of the stole to the inferior orders of

the clergy. Symbolically it represents the yoke of Christ. The colour of the

stole may be changed in harmony with the church's seasons.


The stone is a standard British weight equivalent to 14 pounds. This is the

Imperial stone, other stones are in use - 16 pounds being the stone for cheese,

32 pounds for hemp, 24 pounds for wool and 8 pounds for butcher meat.

Officially Britian is metric, using kilogramms, but the stone lives on

reflecting the independance of the British people.

Stone Age

Stone Age is the name in anthropology for the period of human culture before

the discovery and use of metal when man made his tools and weapons mainly of

flint, but sometimes of other stones, and later of bone, horn and ivory or wood.


Stonehenge is the principal prehistoric monument in Great Britain. It consists

of a group of large stones arranged in a circle on Salisbury Plain.


Stoneware is a crude kind of porcelain, of which the materials, mainly flint

and felspar, are of coarser quality and have not been so strongly heated and

nearly fused in the process of manufacture. Stoneware is unlike porcelain in

being opaque, and differs from earthenware in not being porous. It is however

usually glazed by throwing salt into the furnace, the sodium of the salt

forming a kind of glass with the silica of the ware.

Stool of Repentance

A stool of repentance was a seat or pew in the parish churches of Scotland, on

which those sentenced to expiate such sins as immorality, lying, evil-speaking,

drunkeness, and the like had to appear and remain during the service. The

offender was clothed in a long robe of sacking or was wrapped in a white sheet,

and was required to stand for one or two Sundays for minor offences or longer

for more serious offences.


A storm is a violent atmospheric disturbance caused by unequal atmospheric

pressure and often occurring suddenly.

Stowaway True Archival System

The Stowaway True Archival System by Patri-Soft is a utility computer program

that frees hard disk space by archiving inactive files from hard disks to a

library of offline archive disks. You use its directory manager to select data

to be archived. It works like a backup program to move the files to diskette

while indexing them on your hard disk. It has data compression, automatic

diskette formatting and viewing of files prior to archival.


Strategy (derived from the Greek strategia, meaning 'army leadership') was

originally a military term describing the general direction of a campaign and

higher leadership, as distinct from tactics which describes the actual handling

of troops on the march.


Strathspey is a Scottish dance said to have originated in the Strath valley of

the Spey around the start of the 18th century.


see "Stratum"


The stratosphere is that region of the upper atmosphere where the temperature

ceases to fall with increasing height above the earth's surface, and either

remains constant or slightly increases.


Stratum is a geological term describing a mass of sedimentary rock (a strata)

of great horizontal extent, which was deposited more or less continuously on

the bottom of former seas or lakes, or sometimes on the surface of flat plains

or deserts. Stratified rocks are mostly sandstones, shales and limestone.


A street is a road with houses along one or both sides of it.


A strike is the chief bargaining weapon of a labour body, and consists of a

voluntary stoppage of work with the object of obtaining better conditions or

resisting worsening ones.


Strontium is a metal element with the symbol Sr of the alkaline-earth group. It

is found mainly in celestine and strontianite. It is a hard yellowish metal

which acts on water releasing the hydrogen.

Structural formula

In chemistry, the structural formula is the formula which shows the arrangement

of the atoms in a molecule.


Strychnine is a poisonous alkaloid obtained from the dried seeds of nux vomica

and other species of Strychnos. In small does it is administered as a heart



see "Tope"


Styrivolt is a card game which is more than 300 years old and was probably

invented in Denmark. It has been played in the Faroe Islands for over 200 years.


A submarine is a vessel capable of travelling both on and below the surface of

the sea. The first practical submarine was built in 1620 by Cornelius van

Drebbel. It was made of wood covered with greased leather, and was propelled

from the inside by oars passing through flexible sleeves. The crew was supplied

with air by means of a pipe which led to the surface. It was demonstrated on

the Thames and James I made a trip in it.


A subsidy is a pecuniary grant by the State to the costs of private enterprise

without expectation of a direct return. Subsidies are also grants paid annualy

by one state to another in order to secure its neutrality or support in war or

to induce it to act in accordance with the advice and in the interests of the

country making the payment.

Substitution reaction

In chemistry, substitution reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more

elements or radicals in a compound are replaced by other elements or radicals.

Succinic Acid

Succinic acid is a dibasic acid occuring in amber and other resins, from the

former of which it can be obtained by distillation, though it can also be

prepared by the fermentation of calcium malate.


Sucrose is cane sugar. It is formed by the chemical combination of glucose and

sucrose. It occurs naturally in sugar-beet and sugar-cane, in sweet fruits and

in roots such as carrots.


The sudd is a floating mass of vegetable matter that forms inthe White Nile and

obstructs navigation.


Sueca is point-trick card game with trumps played in Portugal and Brazil. It is

popular with students in Rio de Janeiro because it's fast and you don't need a

table to play it.


Originally all provincial bishops under a metropolitan were called his

suffragans. An Act of Henry VIII provided for what were termed suffragan

bishops for the supplementing of the work of the diocesans.


Suffrage is the right to express an opinion by voting on political questions,

applied in particular to the right to vote at parliamentary elections.


see "suffragette"


Sufiism was a movement of revolt against the rigid law and wearisome ritual of

Islam in Persia. It developed into a pantheistic mysticism which, tinged by the

teachings of Zoroaster, adopted also some Buddhist theories of life.


Sugar is a sweet, soluble carbohydrate.


In chemistry, the sugars are a group of carbohydrates, soluble in water and

having a sweet taste. The group includes glucose, lactose and saccharose.


A sulphocyanate (sulphocyanide, thiocyanate) is a salt of thiocyanic acid and

is usually obtained from gas-purification residues.


see "Sulphocyanate"


Sulphonal (Dimethylmethane diethylsulphone) is a hypnotic manufactured by the

interaction of acetone and ethyl mercaptan in the presence of zinc chloride and

the oxidation of the resulting product with potassium permanganate.

Sulphonic Acid

Sulphonic Acids are acids having an organic group combined with the group SO2OH.


Sulphur (brimstone) is a non-metallic element that occurs either free or in

combination with sulphates and sulphides, is a constituent of proteins, exists

in several allotropic forms including yellow orthorhombic crystals, resembles

oxygen chemically but is less active and more acidic, and is used especially in

the chemical and paper industries, in rubber vulcanisation, and in medicine for

the treating of skin diseases. It has the symbol S.

Sulphur dioxide

Sulphur dioxide is a sulphurous anhydride gas that is given off from some

volcanoes and is produced whenever sulphur or its compounds are burned in air.

It is a colourles gas with a very sharp, suffocating smell. It is very soluble

in water forming an acid, which in the atmosphere is known as acid rain. It is

a powerful antiseptic and is used to remove traces of chlorine from bleached

material, and in the curing of hops.

Sulphuric Acid

Sulphuric acid has the formulae H2SO4.

Sulphurous Acid

Sulphurous Acid (H2SO3) is a solution of sulphur dioxide in water.

Summary Jurisdiction

Summary Jurisdiction is the power conferred on Justices of the Peace to deal

summarily with offenders instead of sending them for trial on indictment.


Summer is the warmest season of the year. It begins astronomically in northern

latitudes when the sun enters the zodiacal sign of Cancer, about June 22nd, and

terminates at the autumn equinox, about September 21st. Midsummer Day is in

fact then really the start of summer. Short spells of warm weather in the

middle of October and the beginning of November used to be known as St Luke's

and St Martin's summer from the occurence of these saints' days on October 18th

and November 11th.


A summons is an order to appear in court to answer a complaint.


The sun is the star at the centre of the solar system.


Sunday is the seventh day of the week.

Sunday School

Sunday Schools were founded by Robert Raikes, a Gloucester printer, in 1780 to

provide education to children who worked such long hours during the week in the

new factories that no weekday education was possible for them.


A sundial is an instrument for measuring the time of day from the shadow cast

by the sun shining on a style or gnomon onto a graduated surface.

Sunn Hemp

Sunn Hemp (Bengal Hemp) is a fibre somewhat similar to flax, obtained from the

stem of the plant Crotolaria juncea and used for making rope.


Sunstroke (heat-stroke) is a disorder produced by exposure to the sun or very

hot air.

Superbase 2

Superbase 2 by Precision Software, is a system which offers file management to

end users together with a more powerful multi-file relational capability within

the Windows 2 environment. Because the product uses a graphical interface

accessing data is as simple as pointing and clicking a mouse. The product can

run using either a full copy of Microsoft Windows 2 or the runtime version of

Windows that is bundled with the package. Superbase 2 gives three types of

views; a record view (default), a table view and a page view which allows you

to place fields any place on your screen. Once you open a particular view on

screen, Superbase 2 provides a VCR-type panel that allows you to easily browse

through your data. A row of symbols across the bottom of the screen represent

commonly used functions such as fast-forward, reverse and pause. Superbase 2

gives access to many powerful features including calculated fields, required

ranges, external lookups and extemally linked text and graphics fits. The

externally linked text files can be edited and stored in Superbase 2s built-in

text editor. Superbase 2 includes report capabilities such as optional date

stamping page numbering and headings. Fields can be from any file, making it a

fully relational report writer. In-line calculations and text concatenations

allow for calculated fields in the report output.

Superbase 4

Superbase 4 is a relational database which runs under Microsoft Windows. Like

Superbase 2, it appeals to end users, but also includes additional powerful

features for the applications developer as well. Superbase 4 contains all the

features and functionality of Superbase 2, and adds a Form Designer module, for

creating presentation quality forms that integrate directly with your

databases. It also includes a full-scale command line language called Database

Management Language (DML). DML is useful for customizing and fine-tuning

applications to include functionality beyond what is accessible through the

menus. With the addition of these two features, Superbase 4 extends its appeal

to the higher-end user.


SuperGraphics by Computer Associates consists of two modules: SuperImage and

SuperChart. SuperChart is a modified version of the popular SuperCalc 5

spreadsheet, available separately. It has been modified to provide links with

SuperImage. Charts produced with SuperChart can be edited, enhanced, and

annotated with SuperImage. Superimage is a complete PC drawing system designed

for rapid enhancement of presentation graphics. Like comparable products,

Superimage provides tools to create freehand drawings, and can edit existing

charts and graphs imported from spreadsheets or from SuperChart. It can create

word charts, which can be created from predefined or custom stencils, then

combined with charts or backdrops. Completed drawings can then be output to

printer, plotter, or 35mm slides. Output can be immediate, or jobs can be

queued for batch output. Superimage can transmit batched output files to a

remote, offsite plotter using a modem.


SuperKey, by Borland International, is a menu-driven, macro-generating program

that includes a number of useful non-macro related utilities. For example,

SuperKey offers vehicles for added security including methods of file

encryption, a password-protected keyboard lock, and an instant screen-saving

feature. SuperKey can be used to develop consistent interfaces across

applications. Its macros can simplify complex command sequences and can be used

to store and insert boilerplate text. The display-only macros are perfect for

creating help screens. SuperKey's interface is similar to that of SideKick but

includes more menus. If you prefer, you can bypass the menus by redefining a

set of Ctrl or Alt key combinations.


Supernova is the explosive death of a star.


SuperPaint combines the best features of painting and drawing programs in one

package. SuperPaint contains both a drawing tool menu and a paint tool menu

that are as comprehensive as the standalone equivalents of these applications.

Icons appear depending upon whether you have chosen the drawing stylus or

paintbrush tool. This lets you do pixel-based painting and object-oriented

drawing on the same screen, each on separate layers. In addition to the

standard commands and drawing and painting tools, SuperPaint has features to

make creating your illustration easier than with some other programs. The

program includes automatic scrolling which moves the page as your cursor moves,

and snap-to grids which let you define the unit of measure for both grids and

rulers. You can hide the command menus and use the entire screen for your

illustrafion. At any time, you can choose to show the painted bit-mapped

elements of your illustration, the drawn object-oriented elements, or both.

There is also AutoTrace, the capability of automatically tracing bit-mapped

images in the Paint layer to create object-oriented line art in the Draw layer.


Superphosphate is a manure made by mixing calcium hydrogen phosphate with



Supertax was an additional income tax first levied by the Finance Act of 1909

upon incomes of over 5000 pounds a year at the rate of 6d in the pound for

every pound by which the income exceeded 3000 pounds.


Suranji (aal) is a red dye extracted from the roots of the aal plant, in India

and used for dyeing cotton cloth.


Surd is an algebraic term to describe a quantity not expressible in rational

numbers, such as the cube root of 3.

Surface combustion

Surface combustion is a method of causing a mixture of air and gas to burn by

bringing it into contact with a suitable porous surface. Usually this consists

of a diaphragm of porous refractory material, to one side of which a mixture of

gas and air is supplied under a low pressure.

Surface tension

Surface tension is a property characteristic of liquids, by which the surface

behaves as if it were covered with an elastic stretched skin. The effect is due

to the fact that at the surface the attraction between the molecules of the

liquid is unbalanced, surface molecules being attracted towards the body of the

liquid, whereas in the body of the liquid a molecule is attracted equally in

all directions.


A surplice is a loose white vestment of varying length, with wide sleeves; worn

by the clergy, and usually by a choir at divine services.


Surveying is the art of measuring the shape and size of parts of the earth's

surface with a view to representation on a reduced scale. It is employed in map

making and is the essential preliminary to all civil engineering works.


In chemistry, suspension is a system consisting of small particles dispersed in

a liquid. The particles will settle out slowly upon standing.


Suttee (Sati) is the practice in India of burning a widow on her husband's

funeral pyre.


A swamp is a level or low-lying expanse of ground saturated with water.


The swastika is an ancient religious symbol dating from Neolithic times, and

occurring in ancient Greek and Egyptian art. It has the form of an equal armed

cross with the ends of the arms all bending in the same direction at right

angles. It was introduced into Europe in the 16th century and used extensively

in Christian art. It was adopted by Hitler as his symbol.


Swearing is the act of declaring upon oath. The term has also come to include

the use of profane language, which under an act of 1847 is a criminal offence

in Britain when such language is used on the street.


A sweatshirt is a long-sleeved knitted cotton article of clothing worn by

athletes and others.


A sweatshop is a workshop or factory where the employees work long hours under

bad conditions for low wages.


A sweepstake is a form of gambling in which those taking part pay money into a

common fund which, after the deduction of expenses, is divided between those

who have drawn certain numbered tickets.


On a ship, a swifter is a line run around the ends of the capstan bars to

prevent their falling out of their sockets.


Swimming is the art of supporting oneself and propelling oneself through the



A swingle is a flat-bladed wooden instrument used for beating and scraping flax

or hemp to remove coarse matter from it.


Swiss is a term used to denote someone or something from Switzerland.

Swiss Muslim

Swiss muslin is a fine muslin dress fabric, usually having a raised or woven

pattern of dolls or figures. It is so called because it was formerly imported

from Switzerland.


see "Crazy Eights"

Swizzle Stick

A swizzle stick is a small rod used to stir or agitate a fizzy drink to help

release the bubbles of carbon dioxide.


A syllabus is an outline of a course of study, giving only the headings for the



Symbiosis is the association of two organisms each helping the other.


A symbol is something which represents something else.


A synagogue is a Jewish place of worship.


Syndicalism is a doctrine of government, a development of trade unionism, its

aim being the abolition of parliamentary government and capitalism and the

substitution of trade unionism as the controller and owner of each particular



A syndicate is a group of persons associated temporarily for the purpose of

buying and re-selling a specific business or other property, or for forming a

limited liability company prior to the issue of shares to the public.


In chemistry, synersis is the shrinking of a gel, with the expulsion of water

or other liquid from it.


In chemistry, synthesis is the construction of a compound by the union of

elements or simple compounds.


Syriac is a Semitic language and a dialect of Aramaic. It was the literary

language of the early Eastern Christians and after the 5th century split into

East and West Syriac.

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