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The V-band is the frequency band from 46,000 to 56,000 mhz employed in radar.


A vacuum is a space from which the gas has been removed.


A vacuum-flask is a double-walled vessel with the space between the two walls

exhausted of air as completely as possible. It was originally devised by Sir

James Dewar for preserving liquefied gases at very low temperatures from

evaporation. The nature of heat transference means that the substance contained

in a vacuum-flask remains at its temperature for very much longer than if it

were in an ordinary single walled vessel.


In chemistry, valence is a number that represents the combining power of an

element or radical.

Valence electrons

In chemistry, valence electrons are the electrons located in the outermost

shell of an atom.


Valency is a term used by chemists to describe the combining ability of of an

element with respect to hydrogen.

Valentine's Day

Valentine's Day is celebrated in many countries on February 14 as a festival of

romance and affection. People send greeting cards called valentines to their

sweethearts, friends, and members of their families. Many valentine cards have

romantic verses, and others contain humorous pictures and sayings. Many say,

'Be my valentine.' Valentine's Day parties and dances are often held. Many

people send flowers, chocolates, or some other gift to their wives, husbands,

or sweethearts. The earliest records of Valentine's Day in English tell that

birds chose their mates on that day. People used a different calendar before

1582, and February 14 came on what is now February 24.


A valley is a long narrow depression in the earth's crust, flanked by well

defined ridges and usually due to the erosive action of rivers or glaciers but

sometimes due to trough-faulting.


In electronics, a valve is a device consisting of two or more metal plates

enclosed in an evacuated glass bulb. One of the metal plates is heated, causing

electrons to be emitted. If a positive charge is applied to the other plate,

the electrons will move towards it and the valve will conduct electricity.

Valves have largely been superseded by transistors which are smaller.

Van der Graaf Generator

A Van der Graaf Generator is a machine for generating voltages in the order of

a few megavolts for such applications as the production of high-energy X-rays

and for nuclear research. The name was coined by a Seventies rock group.


Vanadium is a grayish, malleable, ductile, polyvalent metallic element found

combined in minerals and used especially to form alloys such as steel. It has

the symbol V.

Vanity Fair

Vanity Fair was the first society journal. It was founded in 1868 by Thomas

Gibson Bowles and illustrated by Grebville Murray. Vanity Fair was popular for

its cariactures of the political and social notabilities of the day.

Variola porcina

see "Swinepox"


Vaseline is a propriety name for a jelly left on distillation of petroleum. It

is insoluble in water, and was originally used for damp proofing steel and in

some ointments.


Vatikan is a card game and variant of Rummy.


The VAX (from Virtual Address eXtension) is the most successful minicomputer

design in industry history, possibly excepting its immediate ancestor, the

PDP-11. Between its release in 1978 and its eclipse by micro computers after

about 1986, the VAX was noted for its large, assembler-programmer-friendly

instruction set.


VBScript is an interpreted computer language supported by some client Web

browsers. It is Microsoft's answer to Netscape's JavaScript and is based upon

Visual Basic.


Vellum is a type of superior parchment made from the skin of a calf, kid or



Velocity is the rate of motion, that is the rate of change of position of a

body in a given direction within a measurement of time.


Velour is a pile fabric woven from woollen or cotton yarns or from a mixture of

these yarns. It is finished to present a raised, smooth, furry pile. The term

is also applied to a material made from rabbit furs, largely employed in the

manufacture of hats.


Velvet is a textile fabric formed by interweaving silk threads to form a nap or

pile. It was first manufactured in the 14th century and was introduced to

Britain by Huguenots in 1685.


Velveteen is a textile fabric formed by interweaving cotton threads to form a

nap or pile. It is similar to velvet.


Veneer is a very thin piece of wood, like paper, used to cover other less

valuable wood. The art of veneering was known to the ancient Egyptians and

veneered furniture has been found from the 15th century BC.

Venetian Red

Venetian Red is a permanent red pigment composed of ferric oxide and obtained

by igniting ferrous sulphate.

Ventura Publisher

Ventura Publisher is a powerful, high-end desktop publisher that produces

typographic-quality documents on the PC. It works with documents in a chapter

format to effectively handle long documents such as reports and manuals, as

well as shorter publications such as flyers and newsletters. Ventura's built-in

text editor works with documents in word processing format. A dynamic link

between the word processing file and the text in Ventura automatically reflects

edits made in either file. A WYSIWYG display shows the page composition

process. Ventura can crop, size, and scale graphics brought into a page. The

program can produce simple graphics such as line, circle, and box drawings

which can be placed around a section of a document. Document size is virtually

limitless; documents can be produced with up to 128 chapters, with 300 pages

each. Ventura uses the GEM Desktop graphical interface (the product comes with

a runtime version of GEM). There is no need to open windows, pass data between

applications, or transport graphics with a clipboard. Instead, create a frame

within a document and import text or graphics from other programs. To design a

document, select a text file and attach a predesigned style sheet (or create a

new one). The style sheets make it easy to create uniform, standard format for

repetitive use such as monthly reports. Importing a graphics image is done the

same way: create a frame and import the image. Ventura automatically scales the

image to fit the frame. Images can be resized and scaled as required. One of

Ventura's strong points is handling file formats and directories. To import

files, work through a menu that allows chioce of file type and moves it to the

needed directory. The list of files used in a document is always present. Files

can be from any directory, making it easy to choose files from multiple

directories on multiple disks. Because of its dynamic text and graphics link

and strong file-handling capabilities, the product is good for

creating integrated typeset-quality publications that incorporate files from

word processing, spreadsheet, and graphics programs such as a multicolumn

brochure with charts imported from a graphics product and data imported from a

spreadsheet. Ventura automatically generates indexes, tables of content, and

lists of illustrations. Ventura has a complete set of typographic features that

can be used to customise layouts. Multiple views of the page layout can be seen

and enlarged to emphasise details. Ventura is a complex package and is not

recommended for casual use. There are over 250 on-line help screens that speed

up the learning process. Once mastered, there are a number of features that

speed up the use of the program. For example, control key commands allow by

passing of standard menus and quick movement around the package.

Venturi tube

A venturi tube is a device for measuring the flow of liquids in pipes.


Verdigris is a mixture of acetates of copper used in making some green

pigments. It forms on the surface of copper and brass when they are exposed to

damp, and is highly poisonous.


Vermicelli is an Italian worm-like thread form of pasta. The name derives from

the Latin, vermis 'a worm'.


Vermilion is a variety of mercuric sulphide. It is prepared either by subliming

the black sulphide obtained on heating sulphur with mercury or by a wet

process. Vermilion is a brilliant scarlet, very heavy solid which when finely

ground makes a beautiful and permanent pigment.

Verner's Law

Verner's Law is a linguistic law formulated in 1875 by Karl Verner of

Copenhagen by which certain apparent failures of Grimm's Law are explained.


A vernier is an auxiliary scale, invented by Pierre Vernier, which enables the

reading of the smallest divisions of a graduated scale. It is important in

theodolites, sextants and the mountings for telescopes for accurate

determination of angular positions.


Verse is the principal unit by which metrical compositions are measured.

generally speaking, it is equivalent to what we term commonly the line. The

elementart unit of metrical compositions is the 'foot' - ie a little group of

one or more syllables measured either by accent or by quantity. The verse in

turn consists of a certain number of these feet grouped in definite order, on

the conclusion of which the writer turns back and repeats the same or a closely

related group. As the following verse or verses may vary slightly from the

original pattern, so as to form what is strictly termed a stanza, the word

verse is sometimes stretched to cover this more elaborate grouping, which is

then taken as the principal metrical unit.


The Verst is a Russian measure of length equal to 0.663 of an English mile.


Vertigo is the sensation of giddiness caused by a disturbance of the function

of equilibrium.


A vesicant is a counter-irritant which raises blisters - such as cantharides.


Vesta is the fourth and brightest asteroid. It ws discovered by Olbers on March

the 29th 1807.


A vestry is a room attached to a parish church where the vestments and

ornaments are kept, and which is also used for parochial meetings.


A viaduct is a bridge carrying a road over another road, or a railway over a


Vicks 44 Pediatric

Vicks 44 Pediatric is a tradename for dextromethorphan hydrochloride

Vicks Formula 44

Vicks Formula 44 is a tradename for dextromethorphan hydrochloride

Victoria Day

see "Empire Day"

ViDir/ViRes File Monitor System

The ViDir/ViRes File Monitor System by Vahnzinn international is a utility

computer program that determines what files you never use, backs them up, and

then deletes them, helping you save up to 80% of your disk space without

deleting the programs or data files you use. It also helps you determine which,

of all your files, are used the most, so you can move them to a RAM disk, and

which word processor or spreadsheet files you need to take with you on a trip

or to print your documents on another PC.


Vinegar is a four percent solution of acetic acid also containing small amounts

of phosphates and other extractive matters. It is generally made by fermenting

decoctions of malt, first with yeast, and then converting the alcohol into

acetic acid by means of micro-organisms.

Vinyl trichloride

see "Trichloroethane"


The violin is a family of stringed musical instruments.


The violoncello is a stringed musical instrument about twice the size of a

violin, and with sides deeper in proportion. It has four strings, tuned in

fifths, its notes numbering from the highest string, being frequently tuned G,

D, A, E.

Viper V550

The Viper V550 is a PC graphics card based upon the nVidia Riva 128 TNT chipset

and targeted at business users rather than computer games players. The V550

supports Microsoft Direct3D and also OpenGL.


see "Spinet"


Virgo is a sign of the zodiac represented by a virgin.


Viridian or Guignet's Green is a hydrated chromic oxide obtained by decomposing

borate of chromium with water. It is a permanent and rich coloured pigment.


A virus is an infectious particle consisting of a core of nucleic acids

enclosed in a protein shell.


Viscose is a yellowish, syrupy solution made by treating cellulose with sodium

hydroxide and carbon disulphide. The solution is then regenerated as continuous

filament for the making of rayon and as cellophane.


Vitamins are chemical substances which are used by animal bodies for growth and

repair of certain tissues and cells. They were first named by Dr Casimir Funk

in 1912.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A (carotene) occurs in certain fats and the fatty parts of some foods.

It is used by the human body to enable the eyes to perceive light, and to

promote growth in children and to protect moist areas of the body such as the

lining of the respiratory tract.

Vitamin B

Vitamin B refers to a group of over eleven vitamins. Including Thiamine,

Riboflavin, Nicotinic Acid, Pyridoxine, Pantothenic acid, biotin and other


Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobolamin) is a deep-red crystalline, water-soluble solid

found in liver, milk, eggs and fish. A deficiency can result in disorders of

the nervous system and anaemia.

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a vitamin essential for growth. It was formerly

known as vitamin G.

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid, niacin) is a crystalline acid found in meat and

yeast and produced by the oxidation of nicotine.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a substance found in cereals, fish and meat and used

by the body to produce haemoglobin.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is used by animal bodies for the production of the

immune system, and maintenance of the skin and other cells. Vitamin C occurs

almost exclusively in vegetable matter, and is destroyed by heat.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D (Calciferol) is a substance which assists animal bodies to lay down

calcium and phosphorus in bones. Vitamin D is mainly found in animal matter,

and can also be produced by the body from sunlight.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is a pale-yellow, viscous fluid found in vegetable

oil, eggs, cereals and butter and used in the body as an anti-oxidant and to

maintain cell membranes.

Vitamin G

Vitamin G is a former name for riboflavin.

Vitamin H

Vitamin H (biotin) is a crystalline, water-soluble vitamin of the Vitamin B

group. It is present in all living cells and is used as a growth factor and a

catalyst in carboxylation.

Vitreous Enamel

Vitreous Enamel is an opaque or transparent glaze, generally coloured, which

adheres to a suitable mettalic surface when applied in a liquid state.


Volapuk is a universal language invented by Johann Schleyer in 1879. It was

generally superseded by Esperanto.

Volatile Oil

see "Essential Oil"


A volcano is a vent in the earth's crust from which molten rock, ashes and

steam are ejected. The lava tends in time to heap up a conical eminence round

the vent, thus forming the crater or cup.


A volcano is a vent in the earth's crust.


The volt is the unit of electromotive force. It was named after Alessandro



A voltmeter is an instrument for measuring electro-motive force, or pressure in



In architecture, a volut is the scroll or spiral ornament forming the

characteristic features of the Ionic capital.


Voodoo is a form of magic.

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